Competitiveness and cohesion in Romania's regional development: a territorial approach

2021 ◽  
Vol 65 (03) ◽  
pp. 440-458
Bianca Mitrică ◽  
Radu Săgeată ◽  
Irena Mocanu ◽  
Ines Grigorescu ◽  
Monica Dumitraşcu

The assessment of the socio-economic disparities at the regional level is one of the priority development topics. In particular, in formerly socialistic-planned countries, the development driven by the transition period, the accession to the European Union and the economic crisis, the regional disparities are present. The main aim of the research has been to identify the most competitive and the most cohesive Development Regions in Romania by computing, mapping and analysing two secondary indices (Territorial Competitiveness and Territorial Cohesion). Overall, the investigation shows that economic performance is more consolidated in central and western regions based on their mature and innovative industries, better-developed services and urbanisation/suburbanisation processes, while the eastern and southern development regions, with predominantly rural traits, experienced a significant industrial decline and social deprivation. The most competitive Development Region is Bucharest-Ilfov, given the advantage conferred by Bucharest Capital City, the main economic and social polarising centre in Romania. For reducing regional disparities, the Cohesion Policy should allocate increased funds for countries with least developed regions. The study provides the result of quantitative and qualitative analysis on the regional-level territorial disparities in Romania that could easily be considered as guidelines in the decision-making process while trying to achieve the competitiveness and cohesion goals.

2015 ◽  
Vol 62 (s1) ◽  
pp. 37-51
Maria Daniela Oțil ◽  
Andra Miculescu ◽  
Laura Mariana Cismaș

Abstract The issue of economic disparities within the European Union economies is not new, it is actually a topical issue. Unfortunately, the EU enlargement has determined an even stronger deepening of the regional disparities, because in the absence of adequate regional development policies, the financial instruments have proved to be ineffective. Recent studies show that the economic crisis has increased regional disparities in the European Union countries, influencing the most important regions, especially the economically less advanced ones, the significant regional differences being identified at the NUTS 3 level. Based on these issues, the present paper tries to answer the following questions: 1. How extended are the regional disparities in Romania and how did they evolve over the period 1998-2012? 2. How did the economic crisis influence disparities? Which territorial units were more affected? In order to measure regional inequalities the Hoover index was used as well as the coefficient of variation, and the indicator for assessing the level of development as well as for highlighting regional disparities was GDP per capita. The analysis and interpretation of the results provide an overview of the situation at the regional level in Romania

2020 ◽  
Roberto Zavatta

This paper provides an overview of territorial patterns of COVID-19 deaths in four European countries severely affected by the pandemic, Spain, France, Italy, and the United Kingdom. The analysis focuses on cumulated COVID-19 mortality at the sub-regional level, following the territorial subdivision of countries adopted by the European Union. The paper builds upon a dataset with highly granular information on COVID-19 deaths assembled from various sources. The analysis shows remarkable differences in territorial patterns of COVID-19 mortality, both within and across the four countries reviewed. Results somewhat differ depending on the aspect considered (concentration of deaths or mortality rates) but, in general, Italy, France and Spain display significant territorial disparities, with selected sub-regions being disproportionately affected by the pandemic. Instead, the picture is more uniform in the UK, with comparatively lower differences across the various sub-regions. These findings suggest that analyses of COVID-19 mortality at the national level (and, sometimes, even at the regional level) may conceal major differences and therefore be of limited use, both analytically and from an operational viewpoint.

2021 ◽  
Kristína Jánošková ◽  
Barbora Jánošková ◽  
Dagmar Petrušová ◽  

The establishment of the regional level in Slovakia was one of the conditions for our accession to the European Union. Its real creation took place in the Slovak Republic two years before the accession to the European Community. Despite the efforts of the Cohesion Policy of the European Union to reduce regional disparities across the member states of the EU, at the regional level of the Slovak Republic, it is possible to constantly monitor differences in the development of the regions. Their elimination is the main objective of Slovak regional policy. The representatives of the national level use the European Union’s support policy to gradually reduce or eliminate the regional disparities. This policy offers the possibility of drawing financial resources from several funds. The indicator of differences in regional development is the regional gross domestic product per capita. By monitoring and analysing its evolution over several years, it is possible to see whether disparities at the regional level are being reduced or, on the contrary, are deepening. In the following article, to determine the current state of regional differences, we present the development of regional disparities of Slovak higher territorial units in 2009-2018 through monitored data on regional gross domestic product per capita at current prices.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 970
Alexandru Olar ◽  
Mugurel I. Jitea

LEADER is a rural development method based on a participative approach, which was tailored in 1991 as a complement to the traditional common agricultural policy (CAP) measures. One of its most important objectives is to reduce the differences between rural and urban areas by building on local knowledge and potential. The aim of the present paper is to identify what are the most important characteristics of the LAGs that can counterbalance the existing economic disparities in the rural regions. The research was conducted in the northwest development region of Romania (2014–2020 programming period), using the principal component analysis and the hierarchical cluster analysis. Two types of data were collected: indicators of performance, such as the number of projects contracted and jobs created, were used to assess the success of the method, while the territorial and LAG characteristics were used to explain these results. The findings confirm the presence of an unequal distribution of LEADER support in favor of the most urbanized and developed areas. However, the results also show that the experience and economic and administrative capacity of LAGs could help counterbalance the influence of the territorial features previously mentioned, and therefore to reduce the gap between them and the more developed groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (5) ◽  
pp. 294-306
Zoltán Eperjesi

Regional disparities have always been present in the history of the European Union that has become more and more significant and intense on the occasion of the continuous enlargements of the integration. The European Investment Bank (EIB) as a policy driven development bank of the European Union plays a crucial role in reducing these regional disparities and fostering the social and territorial cohesion of the union by providing funds at favourable terms. The EIB, on the path of considerable metamorphosis, is being transformed to a so called climate or green bank, having simultaneously two task to fulfil, namely to strengthen the European Union’s position on the multi-polar global market and secure a just transition for those regions that are mostly hit by the measures taken for a climate-friendly and environmentally sustainable economy. All of the multilateral development banks following the parity and disparity models place great emphasis upon climate finance to contribute to sustainable economic growth, increasing employment and a heathy planet. The research covers the period of time between 2015 and 2025.

2010 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 364-392 ◽  
Karin Bischof ◽  
Florian Oberhuber ◽  
Karin Stögner

This article presents results from a qualitative analysis of religious and gender-specific ‘othering’ in Austrian and French media discourse on Turkey’s accession to the EU (2004–2006). A typology of arguments justifying inclusion and exclusion of Turkey from Europe or the EU is presented, and gender-specific othering is placed in the context of differing national discourses about Europe and diverging visions of secularisation and citizenship. Secondly, various topoi of orientalism are reconstructed which play a crucial role in both national corpora, and it is shown how various historically shaped discourses of alterity intersect and produce gendered images of cultural and religious otherness.

2017 ◽  
Vol 38 (8) ◽  
pp. 1556-1580 ◽  

ABSTRACTPopulation ageing has led many countries to be concerned about the ‘economic burden’ of elders, and several have adopted the active ageing paradigm to reform policy. However, gender differences that moderate the effect of active ageing have been little considered. As in other nations in the European Union, Swiss federal authorities use the active ageing paradigm to reshape ageing policies, including the provision of incentives to seniors to remain in the labour market. At the same time, many recent and proposed changes draw on the assumption of gender equality, even though actual parity has not yet been demonstrated. We know little about how gender shapes retirement in Switzerland, other than in relation to financial inequality between women and men. Qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews conducted with Swiss retirees (N = 15) shows how men and women describe this time of life differently. All respondents characterised retirement as a time of freedom; but the meaning of such freedom diverged for men and women, reflecting the gender division of labour, which is further shaped by class. We discuss the implications of this difference for the gendered consequences of active ageing policies.

10.1068/c21m ◽  
2002 ◽  
Vol 20 (5) ◽  
pp. 655-677 ◽  
Carlos Gil ◽  
Pedro Pascual ◽  
Manuel Rapún

Economic disparities among the regions of the European Union are more pronounced than among countries. Structural Funds have played a crucial compensatory role, promoting the economic development and real convergence of lagging regions. The amount of resources destined to regional policy and the conflicts arising from its funding and distribution create the need for an adequate theoretical foundation or model to help politicians solve the distribution problem. In this paper we propose an empirical procedure to carry out and evaluate different distributions of funds for the periods 1989 – 93 and 1994 – 99. We begin with the estimation of an augmented production function to permit the calculation of the expected GDP per capita. We then propose a nonlinear programming method to simulate alternative distributions of Structural Funds among Objective 1 regions, based upon two different approaches: equal development, and equal opportunities. For these two approaches we calculate different possibilities, ranging from highly efficient to highly equitable, with the result that we are able to show the ‘frontier’ of optimal distributions. Finally, we evaluate these results and compare them with the real distribution.

2020 ◽  
Vol 159 ◽  
pp. 05002
Aknur Zhidebekkyzy ◽  
Rimma Sagiyeva ◽  
Zhansaya Temerbulatova

Today there is no single universally accepted method for assessing the competitiveness of the country’s regions. For this reason, the research created a methodology for assessing competitiveness at the regional level for Kazakhstan. The three-factor model of Huggins for ranking the regions of Great Britain by the level of competitiveness was used as the basis, and then the model was expanded on the example of a study assessing the competitiveness of the regions of the European Union countries. All data for assessing the competitiveness of the regions of Kazakhstan were collected from the official website of the Committee on Statistics of the Ministry of National Economy of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In the article, 14 regions and 2 cities of republican significance were ranked in terms of competitiveness. As a result, the most competitive regions of Kazakhstan were Almaty city, Atyrau region and Nur-Sultan city, the worst indicator was found for the North Kazakhstan and Zhambyl regions.

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