regional differences
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 969
Author(s):  
Imre Kovách ◽  
Boldizsár Gergely Megyesi ◽  
Attila Bai ◽  
Péter Balogh

Generational renewal is a core issue in European agriculture. Despite the continuous efforts of governments and the EU Council, the ageing of farmers seems an unstoppable process, accompanied by land concentration, the decrease in agricultural activity and the transformation of the European countryside. Consequently, there is a very rich scientific literature analysing the problem; a great part of it argues that the young farmer problem consists, in fact, in a number of different problems, with these problems showing huge regional differences. Hungary, as a new member state, with a heterogeneous (both fragmented and concentrated) land-use structure offers a good field to analyse generational renewal. Our paper is based on the first results of an ongoing Horizon 2020 project analysing rural regeneration. As a part of the research study, 48 semi-structured interviews were conducted with young farmers, successors of farmers and new entrants into farming. In our paper, we explore how education, access to land and family traditions influenced generational renewal and how it impacts sustainability practices.


Author(s):  
Simone G.V.S. Smith ◽  
Maiya K. Yokich ◽  
Shawn M. Beaudette ◽  
Stephen H. M. Brown ◽  
Leah R. Bent

Understanding the processing of tactile information is crucial for the development of biofeedback interventions that target cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Mechanics of the skin have been shown to influence cutaneous tactile sensitivity. It has been established that foot skin mechanics are altered due to foot posture, but whether these changes affect cutaneous sensitivity are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of posture-mediated skin deformation about the ankle joint on perceptual measures of foot skin sensitivity. Participants (N = 20) underwent perceptual skin sensitivity testing on either the foot sole (N = 10) or dorsum (N = 10) with the foot positioned in maximal dorsiflexion/toe extension, maximal plantarflexion/toe flexion, and a neutral foot posture. Perceptual tests included touch sensitivity, stretch sensitivity, and spatial acuity. Regional differences in touch sensitivity were found across the foot sole (p < 0.001) and dorsum (p < 0.001). Touch sensitivity also significantly increased in postures where the skin was compressed (p = 0.001). Regional differences in spatial acuity were found on the foot sole (p = 0.002) but not dorsum (p = 0.666). Spatial acuity was not significantly altered by posture across the foot sole and dorsum, other than an increase in sensitivity at the medial arch in the dorsiflexion posture (p = 0.006). Posture*site interactions were found for stretch sensitivity on the foot sole and dorsum in both the transverse and longitudinal directions (p < 0.005). Stretch sensitivity increased in postures where the skin was pre-stretched on both the foot sole and dorsum. Changes in sensitivity across locations and postures were believed to occur due to concurrent changes in skin mechanics, such as skin hardness and thickness, which follows our previous findings. Future cutaneous biofeedback interventions should be applied with an awareness of these changes in skin sensitivity, to maximize their effectiveness for foot sole and dorsum input.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Revanth Reddy ◽  
Liwei Yang ◽  
Jesse Liu ◽  
Zhuojie Liu ◽  
Jun Wang

Highly multiplexed analysis of biospecimens significantly advances the understanding of biological basics of diseases, but these techniques are limited by the number of multiplexity and the speed of processing. Here, we present a rapid multiplex method for quantitative detection of protein markers on brain sections with the cellular resolution. This spatial multiplex in situ tagging (MIST) technology is built upon a MIST microarray that contains millions of small microbeads carrying barcoded oligonucleotides. Using antibodies tagged with UV cleavable oligonucleotides, the distribution of protein markers on a tissue slice could be printed on the MIST microarray with high fidelity. The performance of this technology in detection sensitivity, resolution and signal-to-noise level has been fully characterized by detecting brain cell markers. We showcase the codetection of 31 proteins simultaneously within 2 h which is about 10 times faster than the other immunofluorescence-based approaches of similar multiplexity. A full set of computational toolkits was developed to segment the small regions and identify the regional differences across the entire mouse brain. This technique enables us to rapidly and conveniently detect dozens of biomarkers on a tissue specimen, and it can find broad applications in clinical pathology and disease mechanistic studies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Min Zhang ◽  
Fang-rong Ren ◽  
Ying-ying Shi ◽  
Hang-sheng Chen ◽  
Ze Tian

The rise of energy consumption has also increased emissions of the “three wastes” (wastewater, waste gas, and industrial solid waste), and environmental emergencies caused by pollutants, natural disasters, and production safety accidents have aroused social concerns. As few scholars have combined treatment efficiency of the three wastes with environmental emergencies to explore their relationships, this research thus uses a two-stage undesirable Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method to explore the situations of 4 regions and 30 provinces in China from 2013 to 2017 based on such interactive perspectives. The study finds that the overall regional environmental efficiency in China is generally low, and in terms of regional differences, the eastern and northeastern regions are better than the central and western regions. The efficiency values of the three wastes in China have also fluctuated greatly from 0.7 down to 0.2 in recent years. The efficiency of environmental emergencies in China is greatly impacted by the efficiency of environmental governance inputs. Based on the results, the study proposes that the eastern provinces can be an example for promoting balanced regional development and offers policy recommendations such as taking precautions against environmental emergencies.


Author(s):  
Г. Л. Сафарова ◽  
В.А. Кипяткова ◽  
А. А. Сафарова

Исследование смертности занимает важное место в демографии в целом и в особенности в демографии старения. России свойственна неоднородность демографического развития, в частности региональная дифференциация показателей смертности населения. Работа посвящена анализу зависимости смертности в регионах России в старших возрастных группах от социально-экономических показателей. Исследование проводили с использованием методов регрессионного анализа, где в качестве единиц наблюдения выступали субъекты РФ, в качестве объясняемой переменной - смертность мужского (женского) населения старшего (60+) возраста, представленная в виде стандартизованных по структуре населения коэффициентов. В результате работы выявлены значимые социально-экономические факторы, позволяющие объяснить различия уровней смертности в субъектах РФ. Studies of old-age mortality are an important part of demography, especially the demography of ageing. Demographic development of Russia is characterized by heterogeneity including regional differences in mortality. The aim of the paper is to analyze the dependence of mortality at old-age groups on socio-economic indicators. The study is conducted using methods of regression analysis; the units of observation are the regions of the Russian Federation, the explained variable is the mortality rate of male (female) population at older (60+) ages standardized by the population-age structure. As a result, the significant socio-economic factors, explaining the differences of mortality rates in the regions of the Russian Federation, were identified.


2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Author(s):  
Jiayu Cheng ◽  
Xianghai Zhou ◽  
Juming Lu ◽  
Xiaohui Guo ◽  
Linong Ji

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Author(s):  
Liyuan Zhang ◽  
Xiang Ma ◽  
Young-Seok Ock ◽  
Lingli Qing

Industrial green technology innovation has become an important content in achieving high-quality economic growth and comprehensively practicing the new development concept in the new era. This paper measures the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation and regional differences based on Chinese provincial panel data from 2005 to 2018, using a combination of the super efficiency slacks-based measure (SBM) model for considering undesirable outputs and the Dagum Gini coefficient method, and discusses and analyses the factors influencing industrial green technology innovation efficiency by constructing a spatial econometric model. The results show that: firstly, industrial green technology innovation efficiency in China shows a relatively stable development trend, going through three stages: “stationary period”, “recession period” and “growth period”. However, the efficiency gap between different regions is obvious, specifically in the eastern > central > western regions of China, and the industrial green technology efficiency innovation in the central and western regions is lower than the national average. Secondly, regional differences in the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation in China are evident but tend to narrow overall, with the main reason for the overall difference being regional differences. In terms of intra-regional variation, variation within the eastern region is relatively stable, variation within the central region is relatively low and shows an inverted ‘U’ shaped trend, and variation within the western region is high and shows a fluctuating downward trend. Thirdly, the firm size, government support, openness to the outside world, environmental regulations and education levels contribute to the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation. In addition, the industrial structure hinders the efficiency of industrial green technology innovation, and each influencing factor has different degrees of spatial spillover effects.


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