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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Rrezart Halili ◽  
Jeta Bunjaku ◽  
Bujar Gashi ◽  
Teuta Hoxha ◽  
Agron Kamberi ◽  

Abstract Background Many studies examined the spread of SARS-CoV-2 within populations using seroprevalence. Healthcare workers are a high-risk population due to patient contact, and studies are needed to examine seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among healthcare workers. Our study investigates the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among staff at primary healthcare institutions in Prishtina, and factors associated with seroprevalence. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional survey including SARS-CoV-2 serological testing and questionnaires with primary healthcare workers from primary healthcare facilities in the Prishtina, the capital city of Kosovo. We calculated prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and of self-reported positive PCR test among primary healthcare workers, as well as crude and adjusted ORs for explanatory factors. Results Eighty-three of the healthcare workers (17.47%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies IgG or IgM, while 231 (48.63%) either had antibodies or a previous positive PCR test. Odds of seropositivity were affected by male gender (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.20, 3.61), and infected family members (OR 3.61, 95% CI 2.25, 5.79) of healthcare workers. Higher education, being part of larger families and having infected family members gave higher odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity. Other healthcare workers had lower odds of positive PCR test and seropositivity than physicians. Conclusion Over 17% of healthcare workers were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and close to half of them were either seropositive or PCR self-reported positive test. Several factors are associated with decreased and increased odds for such outcomes. These findings should be explored further and addressed to Kosovo policy makers, and assist them to intensify vaccination efforts, and maintain control measures until we achieve herd immunity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (3) ◽  
pp. 466-486
Cindy Cindy ◽  
Cynthia Cynthia ◽  
Valentino Vito ◽  
Devvi Sarwinda ◽  
Bevina Desjwiandra Handari ◽  

In Indonesia, Dengue incidence tends to increase every year but has been fluctuating in recent years. The potential for Dengue outbreaks in DKI Jakarta, the capital city, deserves serious attention. Weather factors are suspected of being associated with the incidence of Dengue in Indonesia. This research used weather and Dengue incidence data for five regions of DKI Jakarta, Indonesia, from December 30, 2008, to January 2, 2017. The study used a clustering approach on time-series and non-time-series data using K-Medoids and Fuzzy C-Means Clustering. The clustering results for the non-time-series data showed a positive correlation between the number of Dengue incidents and both average relative humidity and amount of rainfall. However, Dengue incidence and average temperature were negatively correlated. Moreover, the clustering implementation on the time-series data showed that rainfall patterns most closely resembled those of Dengue incidence. Therefore, rainfall can be used to estimate Dengue incidence. Both results suggest that the government could utilize weather data to predict possible spikes in DHF incidence, especially when entering the rainy season and alert the public to greater probability of a Dengue outbreak.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 41
Noor Ashikin Mohd Rom ◽  
Nurbani Md. Hassan ◽  
Al-Mansor Abu Said ◽  
Burhanuddin Bachik

Background - The new increasing homeless lately consist of women, children, youth, the elderly and marginalized ethnic or migrant groups. Some of them are working and earn salaries, however, the income is not sufficient to live modestly. Purpose – The purpose of this research is to establish a desired support system to eradicate urban homelessness in the country. Design/methodology/approach – This is an exploratory descriptive method study which employed quantitative techniques.  The study employed a social ecological model to investigate behavior of homeless via multiple levels of influences including intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community and public policy. Surveys have been conducted on sixty-five homeless individuals.  Findings – It was found that support systems and structures should be derived from the whole streams from families, communities, organizations and government. Employment opportunities, long-term shelters within the community places and highly demanded skills are needed to improve their living condition. Research limitations – This study is only focused on the socio-economic structures of the homeless in a capital city. Originality/value – This is an empirical research using a social ecological model for the homeless in the Kuala Lumpur area. Research on homeless study has received little attention and has yet to be fully explored.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 757
Piotr Majdak ◽  
Antonio Manuel Martins de Almeida

Overtourism refers not only to situations in which carrying capacity levels have been exceeded, but also to those in which tourists and residents share negative feelings of discomfort and other emotions, loss of quality of life and unpleasant experiences in their activities of daily life. The growing number of places struggling with the problem of overtourism suggests that brand new approaches are required to minimize the effects of excessive tourism. However, the impacts of overtourism are place-specific and a one-size-fits-all approach is inappropriate. Many destinations still have a considerable margin to manoeuvre but are nonetheless heading towards increasingly unsustainable levels of tourists per square kilometer. Such regions have time to take some pre-emptive measures based on principles of sustainable development using greener and energy-saving technologies. Over the past few decades, degrowth has arisen as an unorthodox approach based on principles of fairness and social and environmental justice. In certain areas, such as island economies, the economic dynamics remain largely dependent on the tourism sector, which forces the local actors to think and act differently. In this study, we analyze the strategies employed by Madeira to counter the negative effects of oversaturation in a pre-emptive way. The findings of this case study, based on the data at the county level, are enhanced by a panel data analysis of a number of relevant explanatory variables explaining the dispersion of tourists to the rural hinterland. The results suggest that the development of the rural hinterland has proven capable of exerting a progressively positive influence well beyond the borders of the rural hinterland by accommodating a growing share of the increasing numbers of tourists welcomed in the region in the 2002–2019 period, at the expense of the main capital city. This study confirms the importance and potential of the development of the rural hinterland to tackle overtourism in the main tourism areas. In terms of recommendations, it is suggested that local operators and policy-makers must develop efforts to research new ways to adopt energy-saving projects and develop tourisms products that incorporate eco-friendly behaviors.

Christian Plecak ◽  
Donna Tansil ◽  
Karolina Taczanowska ◽  
Alexandra Jiricka-Pürrer

Public green and open spaces fulfil various social, ecological, economic, and aesthetic roles, which complement each another, but can also compete with one another. COVID-19 pandemic catalysed multiple societal changes, including citizens’ perception, needs and expectations posed towards urban green spaces. This article discusses the extent to which the temporally and geographically changed patterns of experiencing these natural spaces also influenced users’ perception and behaviour as well as their appreciation of the conservation areas. The study is based upon two surveys carried out in the greater metropolitan region of Vienna, the capital city of Austria. A quantitative survey (representative online panel) among Viennese population (n=1012), as well as qualitive interviews with experts responsible for conservation areas, administrators of federal parks, along with NGOs representatives were carried out in spring and summer 2021. Our study shows the changed use of urban and suburban large green spaces and conservation areas: first, from the perspective of those responsible for the areas as well as the visitors. Both perspectives supplement one another. They highlight also changed perception of urban citizens towards green spaces during COVID-19 pandemic. An increased importance of time spent in nature (68%) and possibility to visit large green areas (67%) was reported by Viennese citizens. Also, higher recognition of green spaces located close to home was observed among 69% of the respondents. Thus, the presented study contributes to the ongoing international discussion on the transition of societal needs and its effects on urban green spaces induced by the pandemic. Presented results deliver solid arguments highlighting the need of urgent transformation towards a more sustainable, resilient and healthy urban space.

Antonio Aruta ◽  
Stefano Albanese ◽  
Linda Daniele ◽  
Claudia Cannatelli ◽  
Jamie T. Buscher ◽  

AbstractIn 2017, a geochemical survey was carried out across the Commune of Santiago, a local administrative unit located at the center of the namesake capital city of Chile, and the concentration of a number of major and trace elements (53 in total) was determined on 121 topsoil samples. Multifractal IDW (MIDW) interpolation method was applied to raw data to generate geochemical baseline maps of 15 potential toxic elements (PTEs); the concentration–area (C-A) plot was applied to MIDW grids to highlight the fractal distribution of geochemical data. Data of PTEs were elaborated to statistically determine local geochemical baselines and to assess the spatial variation of the degree of soil contamination by means of a new method taking into account both the severity of contamination and its complexity. Afterwards, to discriminate the sources of PTEs in soils, a robust Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to data expressed in isometric log-ratio (ilr) coordinates. Based on PCA results, a Sequential Binary Partition (SBP) was also defined and balances were determined to generate contrasts among those elements considered as proxies of specific contamination sources (Urban traffic, productive settlements, etc.). A risk assessment was finally completed to potentially relate contamination sources to their potential effect on public health in the long term. A probabilistic approach, based on Monte Carlo method, was deemed more appropriate to include uncertainty due to spatial variation of geochemical data across the study area. Results showed how the integrated use of multivariate statistics and compositional data analysis gave the authors the chance to both discriminate between main contamination processes characterizing the soil of Santiago and to observe the existence of secondary phenomena that are normally difficult to constrain. Furthermore, it was demonstrated how a probabilistic approach in risk assessment could offer a more reliable view of the complexity of the process considering uncertainty as an integral part of the results.

Cruz S. Sebastião ◽  
João Samulengo ◽  
Euclides Sacomboio ◽  
Ngiambudulu M. Francisco ◽  
Carlos Teixeira ◽  

Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of illness and public health concern, especially in resource-limited countries. This study analyzed the characteristics related to anti-TB drug resistance. Moreover, we examined the evidence-based indications for the treatment of active TB in Angola. This study evaluated the medical records of 176 patients screened for TB from January to September 2016 in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Approximately 66.5% of the patients were newly diagnosed with active TB. The residence area showed a significant relationship with TB (P = 0.025), whereas age group (P = 0.272), gender (P = 0.853), and HIV status (P = 0.284) did not showed any relationship with TB. Overall, 72.4% of TB patients had resistance to at least one of the anti-TB drugs. The risk of anti-TB drug resistance was higher in males (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42–3.58, P = 0.685] and in TB-HIV coinfected patients [OR: 1.39; (95% CI: 0.26–7.28), P = 0.700], whereas it was lower in patients aged 30 years or older (OR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.18–1.69) P = 0.303) and in patients living in urbanized areas (OR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.17–3.25; P = 0.685). Our findings showed that drug-resistant TB is emerging in Angola. Further studies on factors related to anti-TB drug resistance are urgently needed to ascertain the magnitude of the problem and to proffer strategies toward TB control in Angola.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
pp. 517-526
Xinghua Wang

As the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympic Games approach, promoting the winter sport participation in China is essential and important. However, most of winter sports participants are one-time player, and it could be due to the lack of winter sports culture in the Chinese public. So, developing and promoting the traditional Chinese winter sports may help managers to build a endogenous winter sport culture. Bingxi is a series of ice sport event in ancient China, which is the one of the most representative traditional Chinese sports, which is unique in Chinese history. The present study applied a historical method to explore the three forms of cultural capital in Bingxi. And developed a Demands Scale for Cultural Capital in Bingxi (DSCCB) to measure the participation demands in Bingxi of different group people. Residents (n=621) of Shenyang (capital city in Qing Dynasty) participated in this study. Discussions are centered on the target group of the three forms of cultural capital in Bingxi, and offer a proposal for promoting Bingxi in the future.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Anou M. Somboro ◽  
Yacouba Cissoko ◽  
Issiaka Camara ◽  
Ousmane Kodio ◽  
Mohamed Tolofoudie ◽  

In Mali, a country in West Africa, cumulative confirmed COVID-19 cases and deaths among healthcare workers (HCWs) remain enigmatically low, despite a series of waves, circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants, the country’s weak healthcare system, and a general lack of adherence to public health mitigation measures. The goal of the study was to determine whether exposure is important by assessing the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in HCWs. The study was conducted between November 2020 and June 2021. HCWs in the major hospitals where COVID-19 cases were being cared for in the capital city, Bamako, Mali, were recruited. During the study period, vaccinations were not yet available. The ELISA of the IgG against the spike protein was optimized and quantitatively measured. A total of 240 HCWs were enrolled in the study, of which seropositivity was observed in 147 cases (61.8%). A continuous increase in the seropositivity was observed, over time, during the study period, from 50% at the beginning to 70% at the end of the study. HCWs who provided direct care to COVID-19 patients and were potentially highly exposed did not have the highest seropositivity rate. Vulnerable HCWs with comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes, and asthma had even higher seropositivity rates at 77.8%, 75.0%, and 66.7%, respectively. Overall, HCWs had high SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, likely reflecting a “herd” immunity level, which could be protective at some degrees. These data suggest that the low number of cases and deaths among HCWs in Mali is not due to a lack of occupational exposure to the virus but rather related to other factors that need to be investigated.

2022 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056973
Mamadou Bamba Sagna ◽  
Mary Clare Rosemeyer ◽  
Oumar Ba ◽  
Fatou Diouf ◽  
Karoline Walter ◽  

IntroductionAs of December 2021, 22 countries and one jurisdiction in WHO African Region (AFRO) have adopted pictorial health warning labels on tobacco packaging, but only 13 have implemented them. In 2014, Senegal enacted a comprehensive tobacco control law, which requires strong provisions on tobacco packaging and labelling. The objective of this study was to assess the level of compliance with these provisions in Senegal 6 months after implementation.MethodsData collection took place in Senegal’s capital city of Dakar across 12 districts in February 2018, following the Tobacco Pack Surveillance System Field Protocol developed by the Institute for Global Tobacco Control at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Unique tobacco packs were purchased from a total of 48 tobacco vendors, and compliance with new packaging and labelling provisions was assessed.ResultsIn total, seven unique cigarette packs were confirmed to be legally available for sale in Dakar, Senegal. All packs complied with all health warning provisions (type, size, location, language and quitline information) as well as bans on quantitative emissions yields. However, no pack complied with the descriptive constituents and emissions statement required on the lateral side, and four of the seven packs violated the ban on misleading brand descriptors.ConclusionsAFRO countries have made substantial progress in adopting comprehensive tobacco control laws that bring them closer into alignment with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. This study found areas of effective implementation of FCTC recommended packaging and labelling requirements, as well as areas in need of stronger enforcement.

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