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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Elvin M. Mendez

Abstract Background Allergic rhinitis is the most common allergic disease encountered in a primary care setting. Diagnosis is often made clinically based on response to empiric therapy. However, with long-term treatment failure and/or atypical disease presentation, a differential diagnosis should be considered. The following is a report of an unusual and rare presentation of a subglottic tracheal angiomyomatous hamartoma in an adolescent, treated for many years as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Case presentation A 12-year-old Caucasian was referred to the allergy clinic with a lifetime history of bronchospasms and rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms, treated for many years for asthma and environmental allergies. Cough, posterior nasal drainage, self-described “choking on phlegm,” and a sensation of “a flap in the throat,”, worsened 5 months prior to the initial evaluation. Puncture skin testing for common environmental allergens was negative. Spirometry, performed due to history of chronic cough, showed blunting of the forced expiratory phase. A chest X-ray, immediately ordered to rule out possible extrapulmonary obstruction, showed bilateral bibasilar infiltrates. A noncontrast computerized tomographic scan of the chest, ordered to further elucidate X-ray findings, revealed a subglottic tracheal mass. Following a subsequent transfer and admission to a tertiary hospital center, microlaryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and microsuspension laryngoscopy were performed to remove the tracheal mass. Pathology confirmed squamous mucosa with polypoid angiomyomatous changes and chronic inflammatory features consistent with angiomyomatous hamartoma. Surgical intervention was successful, and follow-up 1 year postoperatively revealed a healthy, asymptomatic adolescent child with normal lung function. Conclusions Although posterior nasal drainage and cough are typical presenting symptoms in the general patient population, they may be clinically impactful as they could disguise more serious medical conditions. A detailed history and careful physical examination may provide a high index of suspicion of disease, and can help work the differential diagnosis. This case presentation is the first documentation of subglottic hamartoma reported in the pediatric literature with clinical manifestation of environmental allergy and asthma symptoms.

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Min Zhao

Abstract Background Papillary oral pathologies are a heterogenous group. Both virus-associated and non-virus-associated, malignant and benign entities may enter the differential diagnosis. In some cases, oral papillary lesions are part of a variety of skin or systemic disorders and syndromes. It is a challenge for clinicians to identify and treat the various etiology of oral papillary lesions. Case presentation This case report describes the successful management of large multiple oral papillary lesions in a 65-year-old female. Combined the clinical features, pathological findings and medical history, the patient was tended to be the diagnosis of Acanthosis Nigricans and was successfully managed. The neuro-endocrine-immune network and mechanical factors in the pathogenesis of oral papillary lesions of Acanthosis Nigricans were discussed. Common questions regarding differential diagnosis, the management of oral papillary lesions of Acanthosis Nigricans patients and follow-up visits are addressed. Conclusions The neuro-endocrine-immune network and mechanical factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of oral papillary lesions with Acanthosis Nigricans. Removing traumatic factors of oral mucosa and the treatment of underlying systemic diseases is necessary for Acanthosis Nigricans patients with oral papillary lesions. The clinical management plan should comprise both the local treatments of oral papillary lesions and the systemic treatment of underlying diseases. Multidisciplinary correlation is helpful and the patient’s collaboration is necessary to arrive at the correct diagnosis and successful long-term treatment effect. From the clinician’s perspective, recognizing various causes and clinical presentations of oral papillary lesions will help guide management.

2022 ◽  
Melanie Jambeau ◽  
Kevin D. Meyer ◽  
Marian Hruska-Plochan ◽  
Ricardos Tabet ◽  
Chao-Zong Lee ◽  

Hexanucleotide G4C2 repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene are the most common genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) generated by translation of repeat-containing RNAs show toxic effects in vivo as well as in vitro and are key targets for therapeutic intervention. We generated human antibodies that bind DPRs with high affinity and specificity. Anti-GA antibodies engaged extra- and intracellular poly-GA and reduced aggregate formation in a poly-GA over-expressing human cell line. However, antibody treatment in human neuronal cultures synthesizing exogenous poly-GA resulted in the formation of large extracellular immune complexes and did not affect accumulation of intracellular poly-GA aggregates. Treatment with antibodies was also shown to directly alter the morphological and biochemical properties of poly-GA and to shift poly-GA/antibody complexes to more rapidly sedimenting ones. These alterations were not observed with poly-GP and have important implications for accurate measurement of poly-GA levels including the need to evaluate all centrifugation fractions and disrupt the interaction between treatment antibodies and poly-GA by denaturation. Targeting poly-GA and poly-GP in two mouse models expressing G4C2 repeats by systemic antibody delivery for up to 16 months was well-tolerated and led to measurable brain penetration of antibodies. Long term treatment with anti-GA antibodies produced improvement in an open field movement test in aged C9ORF72450 mice. However, chronic administration of anti-GA antibodies in AAV-(G4C2)149 mice was associated with increased levels of poly-GA detected by immunoassay and did not significantly reduce poly-GA aggregates or alleviate disease progression in this model.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shuangshuang Li ◽  
Guanhua Xu ◽  
Junyu Liang ◽  
Liyan Wan ◽  
Heng Cao ◽  

Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis where urate crystals deposit in joints and surrounding tissues. With the high prevalence of gout, the standardized and effective treatment of gout is very important, but the long-term treatment effect of gout is not satisfied because of the poor adherence in patients to the medicines. Recently, advanced imaging modalities, including ultrasonography (US), dual-energy computed tomography (DECT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), attracted more and more attention for their role on gout as intuitive and non-invasive tools for early gout diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effect. This review summarized the role of US, DECT, and MRI in the management of gout from four perspectives: hyperuricemia, gout attacks, chronic gout, and gout complications described the scoring systems currently used to quantify disease severity and discussed the challenges and limitations of using these imaging tools to assess response to the gout treatment.

Michael Dölle ◽  
Heiner Wedemeyer ◽  
Michael Gebel ◽  
Andrej Potthoff ◽  
Steffen Zender

Abstract Background Splenic cysts are rare and occur in 0.5 to 2% of the population. They are usually asymptomatic and do not require therapy. In case of symptomatic nonparasitic splenic cysts, potential therapy includes partial splenectomy or laparoscopic cyst de-roofing as well as ultrasound-guided sclerotherapy with 1% polidocanol or 10% sodium chloride (NaCl) as an interventional alternative. So far, single-session sclerotherapy of symptomatic nonparasitic cysts is recommended only if clear-transparent cyst fluid is aspirated. Materials and Methods We report a case series of 17 patients with symptomatic macroscopically turbid nonparasitic splenic cyst fluid who underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle sclerotherapy with either polidocanol ± 10% NaCl (n = 12) or 10% NaCl alone (n = 5) and a follow-up of a maximum of 12 years after first intervention. Clinical, sonographic, and laboratory chemistry data were recorded at baseline and during the follow-up. Results The mean follow-up time was 43.65 ± 40.18 months. At the end of the follow-up, a 79% reduction of cyst size was achieved. The maximum size reduction in the polidocanol group was 76 ± 18% and 84 ± 21% in the sodium chloride group (p >0.05). At the end of follow-up, 15 out of the 17 patients did not have any further symptoms. Despite the cystic fluid being turbid, it was hardly possible to detect a microbiological superinfection. Conclusion Sclerotherapy of splenic cysts leads to a significant size regression in all patients, independent of the sclerotherapy agent used with fewer systemic toxic side effects of polidocanol treatment. It was shown that in a tertiary care center with significant experience, sclerotherapy of splenic cysts is also safe and successful and can lead to a drastic regression of cyst size and symptoms. This shows that interventional therapy is a good alternative to surgical procedures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 908
Zuzana Romanova ◽  
Natasa Hlavacova ◽  
Daniela Jezova

There is no doubt that chronic stress accompanied by adrenocortical stress hormone release affects the development and treatment outcome of several mental disorders. Less attention has been paid to the effects of psychotropic drugs on adrenocortical steroids, particularly in clinical studies. This review focuses on the knowledge related to the possible modulation of cortisol and aldosterone secretion under non-stress and stress conditions by antipsychotic drugs, which are being used in the treatment of several psychotic and affective disorders. The molecular mechanisms by which antipsychotic drugs may influence steroid stress hormones include the modulation of central and/or adrenocortical dopamine and serotonin receptors, modulation of inflammatory cytokines, influence on regulatory mechanisms in the central part of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, inhibition of corticotropin-releasing hormone gene promoters, influencing glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene transcription, indirect effects via prolactin release, alteration of signaling pathways of glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions. Clinical studies performed in healthy subjects, patients with psychosis, and patients with bipolar disorder suggest that single and repeated antipsychotic treatments either reduce cortisol concentrations or do not affect its secretion. A single and potentially long-term treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists, including antipsychotics, has a stimulatory action on aldosterone release.

Vaibhav Dubey

Bipolar disorder (BD) displays abnormalities in protein kinase C (PKC) signaling, and evidence suggests that inhibiting PKC may help treat mania. Endoxifen a potent inhibitor of the PKC signaling pathway, is effective in controlling acute bipolar mania, at doses of 8 mg OD, for a period of 3-weeks. Here we present the case of a patient with severe mania, increased alcohol consumption administered endoxifen 8 mg BID for a period of 3-months, to achieve a better response. High-dose, long-term treatment with endoxifen was efficacious in controlling manic symptoms, with no adverse effects. Additionally, the patient didn’t consume alcohol during the course of treatment. This case showed the long-term effectiveness and safety of high-dose endoxifen to control mania in a patient with BD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yuou Teng ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
Zhizhong Yang ◽  
Mingwan Su ◽  
Jingnian Ni ◽  

Background: Clinical presentations and treatment programs about anti-leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis still remain incompletely understood.Objective: This study analyzed the clinical features and therapeutic effects of anti-LGI1 encephalitis.Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify published English and Chinese articles until April 2021. Data were extracted, analyzed, and recorded in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.Results: A total of 80 publications detailing 485 subjects matched our inclusion criteria. Short-term memory loss (75.22%), faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) (52.53%), other seizures excluding FBDS (68.48%), psychiatric symptoms (57.67%), and sleep disturbances (34.30%) were the most frequently described symptoms in anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Hyponatremia (54.90%) was the most common hematologic examination change. The risk of incidence rate of malignant tumors was higher than in healthy people. The positive rate of anti-LGI1 in serum (99.79%) was higher than CSF (77.38%). Steroids (93.02%), IVIG (87.50%), and combined use (96.67%) all had a high remission rate in the initial visit. A total of 35 of 215 cases relapsed, of which 6/35 (17.14%) did not use first-line treatment, and 21 (60.00%) did not maintain long-term treatment. Plasma exchange (PE) could be combined in severe patients, immunosuppressant could be used for refractory patients or for recurrence and using an anti-epileptic drug to control seizures may benefit cognition.Conclusions: Short-term memory loss, FBDS, psychiatric symptoms, and hyponatremia were key features in identifying anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Serum and CSF antibody tests should be considered in diagnosis criteria. Steroids with IVIG should be recommended, PE was combined for use in severe patients, immunosuppressant therapy might improve outcomes if recurrence or progression occurred, and control seizures might benefit cognition. The useful ways to reduce relapse rate were early identification, clear diagnosis, rapid treatment, and maintaining long-term treatment. The follow-up advice was suggested according to the research of paraneoplastic syndrome, and concern about tumors was vital as well.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cinzia Costa ◽  
Elena Nardi Cesarini ◽  
Paolo Eusebi ◽  
David Franchini ◽  
Paola Casucci ◽  

Introduction: Post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) requires long-term treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs). However, epidemiology of PSE and long-term compliance with ASM in this population are still unclear. Here we report, through population-level healthcare administrative data, incidence, risk factors, ASM choice, and ASM switch over long-term follow-up.Materials and Methods: This is a population-based retrospective study using Umbria healthcare administrative database. Population consisted of all patients with acute stroke, either ischaemic or hemorrhagic, between 2013 and 2018. ICD-9-CM codes were implemented to identify people with stroke, while PSE was adjudicated according to previously validated algorithm, such as EEG and ≥1 ASM 7 days after stroke.Results: Overall, among 11,093 incident cases of acute stroke (75.9% ischemic), 275 subjects presented PSE, for a cumulative incidence of 2.5%. Patients with PSE were younger (64 vs. 76 years), more frequently presented with hemorrhagic stroke, and had longer hospital stay (15.5 vs. 11.2 days) compared with patients without PSE. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models confirmed that PSE associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer duration of hospital stay. Levetiracetam was the most prescribed ASM (55.3%), followed by valproate and oxcarbazepine. Almost 30% of patients prescribed with these ASMs switched treatment during follow-up, mostly toward non-enzyme-inducing ASMs. About 12% of patients was prescribed ASM polytherapy over follow-up.Conclusions: Post-stroke epilepsy is associated with hemorrhagic stroke, younger age, and longer hospital stay. First ASM is switched every one in three patients, suggesting the need for treatment tailoring in line with secondary prevention.

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