mechanical factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Min Zhao

Abstract Background Papillary oral pathologies are a heterogenous group. Both virus-associated and non-virus-associated, malignant and benign entities may enter the differential diagnosis. In some cases, oral papillary lesions are part of a variety of skin or systemic disorders and syndromes. It is a challenge for clinicians to identify and treat the various etiology of oral papillary lesions. Case presentation This case report describes the successful management of large multiple oral papillary lesions in a 65-year-old female. Combined the clinical features, pathological findings and medical history, the patient was tended to be the diagnosis of Acanthosis Nigricans and was successfully managed. The neuro-endocrine-immune network and mechanical factors in the pathogenesis of oral papillary lesions of Acanthosis Nigricans were discussed. Common questions regarding differential diagnosis, the management of oral papillary lesions of Acanthosis Nigricans patients and follow-up visits are addressed. Conclusions The neuro-endocrine-immune network and mechanical factors play important roles in the pathogenesis of oral papillary lesions with Acanthosis Nigricans. Removing traumatic factors of oral mucosa and the treatment of underlying systemic diseases is necessary for Acanthosis Nigricans patients with oral papillary lesions. The clinical management plan should comprise both the local treatments of oral papillary lesions and the systemic treatment of underlying diseases. Multidisciplinary correlation is helpful and the patient’s collaboration is necessary to arrive at the correct diagnosis and successful long-term treatment effect. From the clinician’s perspective, recognizing various causes and clinical presentations of oral papillary lesions will help guide management.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mallory Volz ◽  
Shady Elmasry ◽  
Alicia R. Jackson ◽  
Francesco Travascio

Lower back pain is a medical condition of epidemic proportion, and the degeneration of the intervertebral disc has been identified as a major contributor. The etiology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is multifactorial, depending on age, cell-mediated molecular degradation processes and genetics, which is accelerated by traumatic or gradual mechanical factors. The complexity of such intertwined biochemical and mechanical processes leading to degeneration makes it difficult to quantitatively identify cause–effect relationships through experiments. Computational modeling of the IVD is a powerful investigative tool since it offers the opportunity to vary, observe and isolate the effects of a wide range of phenomena involved in the degenerative process of discs. This review aims at discussing the main findings of finite element models of IVD pathophysiology with a special focus on the different factors contributing to physical changes typical of degenerative phenomena. Models presented are subdivided into those addressing role of nutritional supply, progressive biochemical alterations stemming from an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic processes, aging and those considering mechanical factors as the primary source that induces morphological change within the disc. Limitations of the current models, as well as opportunities for future computational modeling work are also discussed.

10.5219/1711 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 16 ◽  
pp. 15-26
Igor Palamarchuk ◽  
Oksana Zozulyak ◽  
Mikhailo Mushtruk ◽  
Ievgenii Petrychenko ◽  
Nataliia Slobodyanyuk ◽  

The process of intensifying dehydration of pectin-containing raw materials by using centrifugation with simultaneous application of low-frequency oscillations to the working container creates an electroosmotic effect in unilateral diffusion to improve the filtration process. It is established that to reduce the technological resistance in the presented methods; it is necessary to create a fluidized bed of products due to the oscillating motion of the working capacity. An experimental vibration unit has been developed to determine the rational parameters of the vibrocentric moisture removal process using the electroosmotic effect. It is proved that the complex of the designed equipment provides consecutive carrying out of three-stage vibration filtration-convective drying of high-moisture production by an alternation of action of a stream of the heat carrier, an electromagnetic field, low-frequency fluctuations. According to the research results, the dependences of the kinetics of the moisture diffusion process on the electric field strength are obtained; frequency of electric current and duty cycle of pulses, which allowed to optimize the process parameters according to the criteria of minimizing energy consumption. It was found that the processing time to achieve the desired humidity with the application of vibration, filtration, and electroosmotic effect was twice less than for filtration drying in a fixed bed. In combination with the noted physical and mechanical factors, the proposed technology improves the technical and economic parameters of the studied process.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 169-172
Igor G. Belenkiy

In the comment on the article Treatment of Hypotrophic Nonunion of the Clavicle: A Clinical Case, the reasons for the failure of primary and refixation of the clavicle closed fracture are analyzed in detail. A 70-year-old patient got a fracture of the middle third of the left clavicle diaphysis as a result of a fall. He underwent four surgical treatment options: plate osteosynthesis; plate osteosynthesis + bone autoplasty; plate osteosynthesis + vascularized fibular flap reconstruction; external osteosynthesis. A month after the fourth attempt of surgical treatment, fusion, improvement of the function of the right upper limb and the quality of life of the patient were achieved. Technological inaccuracy, namely, the lack of the fragments fixation stability due to the incorrectly chosen length of the plate, as well as an incomplete assessment of the anamnesis and the identified cognitive behavioral features of the patient, are considered as possible reasons for the treatment failure. The author of the comment highlights modern approaches to the treatment of clavicle fractures, and also briefly dwells on the theory of fracture fixation in general. He pays special attention to biological and mechanical factors affecting fractures healing. The author considers the compliance with the basic principles of osteosynthesis to be the main factor in achieving good results in fracture treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 79 (4) ◽  
pp. 357-359
Pedro Miguel Garrido ◽  
Marta Aguado-Lobo ◽  
Luís Soares de Almeida ◽  
João Borges da Costa

Zoon balanitis and lichen sclerosus are both chronic inflammatory disorders of the genital mucosa that usually affect middle-aged or elderly uncircumcised men.Although the precise etiology of Zoon balanitis is still unclear, a pathogenic role of irritant and mechanical factors has been suggested. Therefore, foreskin sclerosis and phimosis caused by male genital lichen sclerosus may trigger the development of Zoon balanitis. However, until the present, only three cases with clinical and histopathologic features consistent with synchronous presentation of both disorders have been described. We report the case of a 70-year-old male who developed Zoon balanitis in association with lichen sclerosus, that cleared only after circumcision.

Fengying Gong ◽  
Yuchao Yang ◽  
Liangtao Wen ◽  
Congrong Wang ◽  
Jingjun Li ◽  

Cells and tissues in the human body are subjected to mechanical forces of varying degrees, such as tension or pressure. During tumorigenesis, physical factors, especially mechanical factors, are involved in tumor development. As lung tissue is influenced by movements associated with breathing, it is constantly subjected to cyclical stretching and retraction; therefore, lung cancer cells and lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are constantly exposed to mechanical load. Thus, to better explore the mechanisms involved in lung cancer progression, it is necessary to consider factors involved in cell mechanics, which may provide a more comprehensive analysis of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this review is: 1) to provide an overview of the anatomy and tissue characteristics of the lung and the presence of mechanical stimulation; 2) to summarize the role of mechanical stretching in the progression of lung cancer; and 3) to describe the relationship between mechanical stretching and the lung cancer microenvironment, especially CAFs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 164-167
Radiyati Umi Partan

Osteoarthritis, the most common form of joint disease, is primarily a disease of aging. Ninety percent of all people have radiographic features of osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints by age 40. Symptomatic disease increases with age. Risk factors for this disorder include gender, genetics, obesity, and work history. Osteoarthritis develops in women more often than in men. This arthropathy is characterized by cartilage degeneration and bony hypertrophy at the articular margins. Inflammation is usually minimal. Hereditary and mechanical factors may be involved in the pathogenesis. This review provides an overview of counseling osteoarthritis and its treatment and management.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4277
Sola Choi ◽  
Miyeon Kwon ◽  
Myung-Ja Park ◽  
Juhea Kim

With the increasing production of synthetic materials, more microplastic fibers are being generated while washing clothes. Consequently, these particles are increasingly detected in the aquatic environment. Synthetic fibers produced via washing have a relatively high contribution to microplastic pollution. Hence, recent research on reducing the release of microplastic fibers is attracting considerable attention. In this study, fabric-specific analysis was performed by strictly controlling various factors, and each washing and drying process was improved by focusing on the mechanical factors affecting microplastic release. Furthermore, the mass of the collected microplastic fibers and their length distribution were measured. Fabric construction, including chemical composition and yarn type, impacted the microplastics released during washing and drying. Differences in the mechanical factors during washing helped to identify the physical factors affecting microplastic release. These results on the release of microplastics may provide a basis for developing a filter system that can minimize the unintended environmental consequences.

I. Lappo ◽  
S. Prykhodko ◽  
S. Martyniuk ◽  
S. Shulha

In order to assure the compatibility of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the armies of the NATO member states, amendments are being made to the national legislation of Ukraine to create a mechanism for the implementation of NATO standards or their provisions in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. To ensure regulatory support of the life cycle of armament and military equipment, measures are being taken to fully transition the military-industrial complex of Ukraine to use international, European and NATO standards in production. In 2021, national standards DSTU STANAG 4370: 2021 were adopted, harmonized with NATO standards, which regulate the organization and testing samples of armament and military equipment on environmental conditions impact. Since these standards are adopted in the original language, and in Ukraine there is no practice of distributing and using English-language normative documents, there is a problem of unambiguous interpretation of the content of these standards by all interested parties: product manufacturers, testing laboratories, scientific organizations etc. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main provisions of national standards regarding the conditions and methods for testing the impact of mechanical factors in order to implement them in the system of testing samples of armament and military equipment. In the course of research general scientific methods of processing and systematization of information, in particular, system analysis and synthesis of organizational and technical systems were applied. Due to the abolition of the set of state military standards, which established the level of quality indicators, composition, sequence, general requirements for testing equipment, instruments, devices for military purposes, an urgent need arose for regulatory support for the organization and testing of armament and military equipment. It was determined that one of the main directions of solving the problem of normative support for the organization and testing of armament and military equipment is the adoption of international military standards in the capacity of national ones. The main provisions of the standards that ensure the organization and conduct of tests of military equipment for mechanic factors impact were analyzed, the structure and content of these standards were considered.

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