muscle strength
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Federico Roggio ◽  
Bruno Trovato ◽  
Caterina Ledda ◽  
Venerando Rapisarda ◽  
Giuseppe Musumeci

This case report speculates that the prolonged vibrations from enduro off-road sports are deleterious to the spine. The results of this case report may also aid sports physicians in better understanding this complex and relatively unknown phenomenon. No published data are present in the current literature that demonstrate the correlation between early spine osteoarthritis from enduro motorcycle overuse and the long-term management effects of a non-invasive kinesiological approach to reduce pain and inflammation and improve spine mobility and muscle strength.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Roger Andrey Carvalho Jardim ◽  
Tamara Silva de Sousa ◽  
Wueyla Nicoly Nascimento dos Santos ◽  
Areolino Pena Matos ◽  
Natália Camargo Rodrigues Iosimuta

Abstract Background The effectiveness of blood flow restriction training (BFR) in elderly with knee osteoarthritis (OA) is comparable to performing high-intensity protocols (70 to 80% of 1 RM [repetition maximum]) that are known to be effective for improving the muscle strength of knee extensors, with the advantage of generating less particular rating of perceived exertion and pain immediately after training. However, despite being a promising alternative, little is known about the best way to apply the BFR, such as level of pressure and combination or not with other therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether different levels of blood flow restriction with low load (BFR + LL) and no load (BFR + rest) are non-inferior to high-intensity resistance exercise (HIRE+BFRplacebo) for pain reduction in patients with knee OA. Methods/design This clinical trial is a non-inferiority, five-arm, randomized, active-controlled, single trial which will be carried out in 165 patients of both sexes with knee OA, aged 50 years and older. Participants will be randomly allocated into 5 exercise groups (40% of BFR + LL; 80% of BFR + LL; 40% of BFR + rest; 80% BFR + rest, and HIRE+BFR placebo). A mixed linear model will be used to examine the effect of group-by-time interaction on pain intensity on the WOMAC subscale (primary outcome) and on disease severity, physical functional data, balance data, quality of life, global perceived effect scale, and muscle strength (secondary outcomes). Participants will be analyzed for intention-to-treat, and the statistical assessor blinded to the groups. The collection of outcomes 72 h after completion of the 16 weeks of interventions will be the primary measurement point. Follow-up secondary timepoints will be collected at 20, 28, 40, 52, and 64 weeks after the end of interventions, except for pain during the training, which will be measured immediately at the end of each session. Only the comparison of the primary outcome between the HIRE group with each BFR group will be analyzed in the non-inferiority framework, the other comparisons between the BFR groups for the primary outcome, and all secondary outcomes will be interpreted in the superiority framework. Discussion The results of this clinical trial can point out more clearly to ways to optimize the BFR training with the minimum of pain immediately after training, which will allow the offer of an effective and more adherent strengthening training to patients with knee OA. Trial registration Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clínicos, RBR-93rx9q. Registered on 23 July 2020. Version 1.0.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 343
Shota Matsufuji ◽  
Tetsuo Shoji ◽  
Suhye Lee ◽  
Masao Yamaguchi ◽  
Mari Nishimura ◽  

Carnitine deficiency is prevalent in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and it could result in lowered muscle strength. So far, the effect of treatment with levocarnitine on lower limb muscle strength has not been well described. This observational study examined the association between treatment with levocarnitine with the change in knee extensor strength (KES) in hemodialysis patients. Eligible patients were selected from the participants enrolled in a prospective cohort study for whom muscle strength was measured annually. We identified 104 eligible patients for this analysis. During the one-year period between 2014 to 2015, 67 patients were treated with intravenous levocarnitine (1000 mg per shot, thrice weekly), whereas 37 patients were not. The change in KES was significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the carnitine group [0.02 (0.01–0.04) kgf/kg] as compared to the non-carnitine group [−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.01) kgf/kg]. Multivariable-adjusted regression analysis showed the positive association between the change in KES and the treatment with levocarnitine remained significant after adjustment for the baseline KES and other potential confounders. Thus, treatment with intravenous levocarnitine was independently and positively associated with the change in KES among hemodialysis patients. Further clinical trials are needed to provide more solid evidence.

Filipe Rodrigues ◽  
Christophe Domingos ◽  
Diogo Monteiro ◽  
Pedro Morouço

As aging continues to grow in our society, sarcopenia and associated fall risk is considered a public health problem since falling is the third cause of chronic disability. Falls are negatively related to functionality and independence and positively associated with morbidity and mortality. The cost of treatment of secondary injuries related to falls is high. For example, one in ten fall incidents leads to bone fractures and several other comorbidities. As demonstrated by several experimental studies, adopting a more active lifestyle is critical for reducing the number of fall episodes and their consequences. Therefore, it is essential to debate the proven physical exercise methods to reduce falls and fall-related effects. Since muscle mass, muscle strength, bone density, and cartilage function may play significant roles in daily activities, resistance training may positively and significantly affect the elderly. This narrative review aimed to examine current evidence on existing resistance training using resistance machines and bodyweight or low-cost equipment for the elderly and how they are related to falls and fall-related consequences. We provide theoretical links between aging, sarcopenia, and falls linking to resistance training and offer practical suggestions to exercise professionals seeking to promote regular physical exercise to promote quality of life in this population. Exercise programs focusing on strength may significantly influence muscle mass and muscle strength, minimizing functional decline and risk of falling. Resistance training programs should be customized to each elderly according to age, sex, and other fundamental and individual aspects. This narrative review provides evidence to support recommendations for practical resistance training in the elderly related to intensity and volume. A properly designed resistance training program with adequate instructions and technique is safe for the elderly. It should include an individualized approach based on existing equipment (i.e., body weight, resistance machines). Existing literature shows that exercise performance towards 2–3 sets of 1–2 exercises per major muscle group, performing 5–8 repetitions or achieving intensities of 50–80% of 1RM, 2–3 times per week should be recommended, followed by training principles such as periodization and progression. Bearing this in mind, health and exercise professionals should combine efforts focusing on efficient strategies to reduce falls among the elderly and promote higher experiences of well-being at advanced stages in life.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Szu-Hung Lin ◽  
Tong-Rong Yang ◽  
I-Ching Chuang ◽  
Chia-Ling Chen ◽  
Ching-Yi Wu

AbstractStroke individuals’ daily function has been demonstrated to be influenced by their somatosensory capability, cognitive capability, and upper extremity (UE) motor abilities. However, the structural relationships among these abilities on stroke individuals’ independence in daily function remain unclear. We analyzed the pretest measures of 153 stroke individuals in outpatient rehabilitation settings by structural equation modeling to determine the structural relationship among somatosensory capability, UE muscle strength, UE motor function, and cognitive capability that influences independence in daily function. The standardized results indicated somatosensory capability negatively influenced UE muscle strength, but positively influenced UE muscle strength mediated by UE motor function. UE muscle strength, then, positively influenced individuals’ independence in daily function. On the other hand, somatosensory capability positively influenced cognitive capability, which marginally and positively affected the performance of independence in daily function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate the influence of somatosensory capability on the daily function is mediated mainly by motor functions and marginally by cognitive capability. This structural model may allow future clinical therapists to design more effective task-related training protocols to promote the independence in daily function for stroke individuals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Stefanie John ◽  
Katja Orlowski ◽  
Kai-Uwe Mrkor ◽  
Jürgen Edelmann-Nusser ◽  
Kerstin Witte

BACKGROUND: Following amputation, patients with lower limb amputations (LLA) are classified into different functional mobility levels (K-levels) ranging from K0 (lowest) to K4 (highest). However, K-level classification is often based on subjective criteria. Objective measures that are able to differentiate between K-levels can help to enhance the objectivity of K-level classification. OBJECTIVE(S): The goal of this preliminary cross-sectional study was to investigate whether differences in hip muscle strength and balance parameters exist among patients with transfemoral amputations (TFA) assigned to different K-levels. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-two participants with unilateral TFA were recruited for this study, with four participants assigned to K1 or K2, six assigned to K3 and twelve assigned to K4. Maximum isometric hip strength of the residual limb was assessed in hip flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction using a custom-made diagnostic device. Static balance was investigated in the bipedal stance on a force plate in eyes open (EO) and eyes closed (EC) conditions. Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to evaluate differences between K-level groups. FINDINGS: Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences in the parameters between the three K-level groups (p>0.05). Descriptive analysis showed that all hip strength parameters differed among K-level groups showing an increase in maximum hip torque from K1/2-classified participants to those classified as K4. Group differences were also present in all balance parameters. Increased sway was observed in the K1/2 group compared to the K4 group, especially for the EC condition. CONCLUSION: Although not statistically significant, the magnitude of the differences indicates a distinction between K-level groups. These results suggest that residual limb strength and balance parameters may have the potential to be used as objective measures to assist K-level assignment for patients with TFA. This potential needs to be confirmed in future studies with a larger number of participants. Layman's Abstract Patients with lower limb amputation (LLA) are classified into different mobility levels, so-called K-levels, which are ranging from K0 (lowest) to K4 (highest). K-level classification is relevant for the patients as it determines the type of prosthetic components available. However, K-level can vary greatly based on the clinician or orthopedic technician individual assessment. Objective data from physical performance tests can help to improve K-level classification. Therefore, muscle strength tests of the amputation stump as well as balance tests were performed in this study to determine whether these parameters have the potential to support K-level classification. Twenty-two participants with a thigh amputation participated in the study (four K1/2-, six K3- and twelve K4-participants). Hip muscle strength on the amputation side was assessed as well as static balance in the double leg stance with eyes open and eyes closed. Analysis of the data showed that all hip strength parameters differed between the K-level groups, with maximum strength increasing from the K1/2 group to the K4 group. Group differences were also seen in the balance parameters with greater body sway for the K1/2 group when compared to the K4 group, especially when participants had their eyes closed. These results show that muscle strength tests of the residual limb and static balance tests may serve as additional measures to improve K-level assignment for patients with LLA. This was only an initial study and further studies with a larger number of participants are required to confirm these results. Article PDF Link: How To Cite: John S, Orlowski K, Mrkor K.U, Edelmann-Nusser J, Witte K. Differences in hip muscle strength and static balance in patients with transfemoral amputations classified at different K-levels: A preliminary cross-sectional study. Canadian Prosthetics & Orthotics Journal. 2022; Volume 5, Issue 1, No.5. Corresponding Author: Stefanie John,Department of Sports Science, Faculty of Humanities, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.E-Mail: [email protected] ID:

Emilian Tarcău ◽  
Dorina Ianc ◽  
Elena Sîrbu ◽  
Doriana Ciobanu ◽  
Florin Marcu ◽  

Low back pain is a common problem in the active population, and the second reason for visiting a physician. In patients with lumbar disc protrusion, the nucleus pulposus bulges against the disc and the latter protrudes into the spinal column, but the annulus fibrosus remains intact. The purpose of this study was to prove that starting an early complex rehabilitation treatment results into pain and disability reduction, and increased muscle strength and mobility in patients with lumbar disc protrusions. We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling 60 patients (25 men and 35 women) aged between 26 to 76 years, diagnosed with lumbar disc protrusion. Patients in the experimental group registered significant improvements in all studied variables (pain, mobility, muscle strength, disability) after 6 months of treatment. The results of our study suggest that, in the lumbar disc disease, a combined rehabilitation program may be more effective in terms of pain and disability reduction, if it starts early after diagnosis. The current study proves the importance of combining electrotherapy with hydrotherapy and physical therapy. Patients who received this treatment combination showed an extremely significant improvement in pain relief, and reduction of functional disability after 6 months of treatment.

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