forest conversion
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2022 ◽  
Frances O'Leary

South American wetlands are of global importance, yet limited delineation and monitoring restricts informed decision-making around the drivers of wetland loss. A growing human population and increasing demand for agricultural products has driven wetland loss and degradation in the Neotropics. Understanding of wetland dynamics and land use change can be gained through wetland monitoring. The Ñeembucú Wetlands Complex is the largest wetland in Paraguay, lying within the Paraguay-Paraná-La Plata River system. This study aims to use remotely sensed data to map land cover between 2006 and 2021, quantify wetland change over the 15-year study period and thus identify land cover types vulnerable to change in the Ñeembucú Wetlands Complex. Forest, dryland vegetation, vegetated wetland and open water were identified using Random Forest supervised classifications trained on visual inspection data and field data. Annual change of -0.34, 4.95, -1.65, 0.40 was observed for forest, dryland, vegetated wetland and open water, respectively. Wetland and forest conversion is attributed to agricultural and urban expansion. With ongoing pressures on wetlands, monitoring will be a key tool for addressing change and advising decision-making around development and conservation of valuable ecosystem goods and services in the Ñeembucú Wetlands Complex.

Ting Liu ◽  
Xiao Wu ◽  
Huangwei Li ◽  
Chen Ning ◽  
Yong Li ◽  

Intensive clear cutting of natural forests and conversion to monoculture plantations are ongoing worldwide, leading to degradation of soil quality and microbial functions. Here, we compared soil quality index (SQI) and fungal community in a natural forest (Forest) and four 5-year-old monoculture plantations, including Camellia oleifera (Oil), Amygdalus persica (Peach), Myrica rubra (Berry) and Cunninghamia lanceolata (Fir), in a subtropical region of China. After conversion, soil pH rose up to 0.31, but organic carbon, total nitrogen, sucrase, acid protease, glutaminase and phosphatase activities decreased by 83%, 59%, 43%, 31%, 64%, 66% and 77%, respectively, in the plantations. Correspondingly, the SQI dropped by 65%. High-throughput sequencing of the ITS1 region demonstrated an increase in α-diversity and a striking difference in β-diversity following conversion. Changes in the dominant fungal taxa following forest conversion to plantations was interpreted by Grime’s C-S-R life history framework. Conversion increased the fungal groups with stress-tolerant (S) and ruderal (R) strategies - mainly copiotrophic saprophytes, such as Ascomycota and Zygomycota, but decreased the fungal groups with competitor (C) strategies - mainly oligotrophic saprophytes and mycorrhizal fungi, such as Basidiomycota. Genera affiliated to those phyla including Pseudophialophora, Rhytisma increased, but Russula decreased. Redundancy analysis and structural equation modeling indicated that the diversity and composition of fungal communities changed with soil quality degradation, which were mainly driven by increased soil pH, decreased available carbon and nutrients (N, P), and related enzymes activities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 199-209
Wieke Herningtyas

Abstract: Oil palm was one of profitable industrial crops. Oil palm high demand in industries encouraged new plantation field opening as oil palm plantation by means of forest conversion method. From land acquisition to oil palm plantation management, tenurial conflict often occurs. This article aimed to map some existing researches concerning conflict of palm oil companies with indigenous and surrounding forest community in Indonesia. This article uses systematic review method by using conflict-related keywords as assisting tool in filtering the data in order to acquire matching articles. Conflict of palm oil companies with indigenous people and surrounding forest community was distributed into four types. Type 1 was the conflict related to land acquisition and HGU permit. Type 2 was the conflict related to plasma plantation development and land compensation which would be used for plasma plantation. Type 3 was the conflict related to Broken Promises and Unfulfilled CSR Commitment. Type 4 was the conflict which occurred during plasma plantation management by cooperatives and companies for oil palm production (TBS and CPO). Keywords: conflict, plantation, palm oil, indigenous people, people surrounding society   Intisari : Kelapa sawit merupakan salah satu produk tanaman industri yang menguntungkan. Tingginya permintaan kelapa sawit oleh pasar industri mendorong pembukaan lahan perkebunan baru untuk perkebunan kelapa sawit melalui konversi hutan. Konversi lahan sering terjadi konflik tenurial. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memetakan penelitian-penelitian terdahulu mengenai konflik antara perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit dengan masyarakat adat/masyarakat sekitar hutan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode sistematik review dengan menggunakan kata kunci sebagai alat bantu dalam proses penyaringan untuk mendapatkan artikel yang sesuai. Konflik antara perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit dengan masyarakat adat/masyarakat sekitar hutan dibagi menjadi empat tipe. Tipe 1 adalah konflik terkait akuisisi lahan dan perizinan HGU. Tipe 2 adalah konflik yang terjadi terkait pengembangan perkebunan plasma dan ganti rugi lahan yang akan digunakan untuk perkebunan plasma. Tipe 3 adalah konflik yang terjadi terkait janji yang tidak ditepati dan komitmen dari CSR yang tidak dipenuhi. Tipe 4 adalah konflik yang terjadi dalam pengelolaan kebun plasma oleh koperasi dan perusahaan untuk menghasilkan kelapa sawit (TBS dan CPO). Kata Kunci: kelapa sawit, konflik, masyarakat adat, masyarakat sekitar hutan perkebunan

2021 ◽  
Rui Sun ◽  
Guoyu Lan ◽  
Chuan Yang ◽  
Zhixiang Wu ◽  
Banqian Chen ◽  

Abstract. Land-use changes can alter soil properties and thus affect soil quality. Our understanding of how forest conversion (from tropical rainforest to rubber plantations) affects soil properties and soil quality is limited. An ideal testing ground for analyzing such land-use change and its impacts is Hainan Island, the largest tropical island in China. Based on 21 soil physicochemical and biological properties, a soil quality index (SQI) employed principal component analysis to assess soil quality changes from the conversion of tropical rainforests to rubber plantations. The results showed that (i) soil available potassium, available phosphorus, microbial biomass carbon, cellulose decomposition, acid phosphatase, and urease were vital soil properties for soil quality assessment on Hainan Island. (ii) The SQI of rubber plantations decreased by 26.48 % compared to tropical rainforests, while four investigated soil properties (soil pH, total phosphorus, cellulose decomposition, and actinomyces) increased. (iii) The SQI of both the tropical rainforests and rubber plantations showed significant spatial differences, which, under tropical rainforests, was more sensitive to seasonal changes than those under rubber plantations. (iv) Structural equation modeling suggested that forest conversion directly impacted soil quality and, indirectly impacted soil qualities' spatial variation by their interaction with soil types and geographical positions. Overall, though the conversion of tropical rainforest to rubber plantation did not decrease all soil properties, the tropical rainforest with its high soil quality should be protected.

Taylor Joyal ◽  
Alexander Fremier ◽  
Jan Boll

In the humid tropics, forest conversion and climate change threaten the hydrological function and stationarity of watersheds, particularly in steep terrain. As climate change intensifies, shifting precipitation patterns and expanding agricultural and pastoral land use may effectively reduce the resilience of headwater catchments. Compounding this problem is the limited long-term monitoring in developing countries for planning in an uncertain future. In this paper, we asked which change, climate or land use, more greatly affects stream discharge in humid tropical mountain watersheds? To answer this question, we used the process-based, spatially distributed Soil Moisture Routing model. After first evaluating model performance (Ns = 0.73), we conducted a global sensitivity analysis to identify the model parameters that most strongly influence simulated watershed discharge. In particular, peak flows are most influenced by input model parameters that represent baseflow and shallow subsurface soil pathways while low flows are most sensitive to antecedent moisture, macropore hydraulic conductivity, soil depth and porosity parameters. We then simulated a range of land use and climate scenarios in three mountain watersheds of central Costa Rica. Our results show that deforestation influences streamflow more than altered precipitation and temperature patterns through changes in first-order hydrologic hillslope processes. However, forest conversion coupled with intensifying precipitation events amplifies hydrological extremes, reducing the hydrological resilience to predicted climate shifts in mountain watersheds of the humid tropics. This finding suggests that reforestation can help mitigate the effects of climate change on streamflow dynamics in the tropics including impacts to water availability, flood pulses, channel geomorphology and aquatic habitat associated with altered flow regimes.

2021 ◽  
Teun Boekhout ◽  
Anthony S. Amend ◽  
Fouad El Baidouri ◽  
Toni Gabaldón ◽  
József Geml ◽  

AbstractYeasts, usually defined as unicellular fungi, occur in various fungal lineages. Hence, they are not a taxonomic unit, but rather represent a fungal lifestyle shared by several unrelated lineages. Although the discovery of new yeast species occurs at an increasing speed, at the current rate it will likely take hundreds of years, if ever, before they will all be documented. Many parts of the earth, including many threatened habitats, remain unsampled for yeasts and many others are only superficially studied. Cold habitats, such as glaciers, are home to a specific community of cold-adapted yeasts, and, hence, there is some urgency to study such environments at locations where they might disappear soon due to anthropogenic climate change. The same is true for yeast communities in various natural forests that are impacted by deforestation and forest conversion. Many countries of the so-called Global South have not been sampled for yeasts, despite their economic promise. However, extensive research activity in Asia, especially China, has yielded many taxonomic novelties. Comparative genomics studies have demonstrated the presence of yeast species with a hybrid origin, many of them isolated from clinical or industrial environments. DNA-metabarcoding studies have demonstrated the prevalence, and in some cases dominance, of yeast species in soils and marine waters worldwide, including some surprising distributions, such as the unexpected and likely common presence of Malassezia yeasts in marine habitats.

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