new world monkeys
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Uri Galili

The α-gal epitope is a carbohydrate antigen which appeared early in mammalian evolution and is synthesized in large amounts by the glycosylation enzyme α1,3galactosyltransferase (α1,3GT) in non-primate mammals, lemurs, and New-World monkeys. Ancestral Old-World monkeys and apes synthesizing α-gal epitopes underwent complete extinction 20–30 million years ago, and their mutated progeny lacking α-gal epitopes survived. Humans, apes, and Old-World monkeys which evolved from the surviving progeny lack α-gal epitopes and produce the natural anti-Gal antibody which binds specifically to α-gal epitopes. Because of this reciprocal distribution of the α-gal epitope and anti-Gal in mammals, transplantation of organs from non-primate mammals (e.g., pig xenografts) into Old-World monkeys or humans results in hyperacute rejection following anti-Gal binding to α-gal epitopes on xenograft cells. The in vivo immunocomplexing between anti-Gal and α-gal epitopes on molecules, pathogens, cells, or nanoparticles may be harnessed for development of novel immunotherapies (referred to as “α-gal therapies”) in various clinical settings because such immune complexes induce several beneficial immune processes. These immune processes include localized activation of the complement system which can destroy pathogens and generate chemotactic peptides that recruit antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as macrophages and dendritic cells, targeting of antigens presenting α-gal epitopes for extensive uptake by APCs, and activation of recruited macrophages into pro-reparative macrophages. Some of the suggested α-gal therapies associated with these immune processes are as follows: 1. Increasing efficacy of enveloped-virus vaccines by synthesizing α-gal epitopes on vaccinating inactivated viruses, thereby targeting them for extensive uptake by APCs. 2. Conversion of autologous tumors into antitumor vaccines by expression of α-gal epitopes on tumor cell membranes. 3. Accelerating healing of external and internal injuries by α-gal nanoparticles which decrease the healing time and diminish scar formation. 4. Increasing anti-Gal–mediated protection against zoonotic viruses presenting α-gal epitopes and against protozoa, such as Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and Plasmodium, by vaccination for elevating production of the anti-Gal antibody. The efficacy and safety of these therapies were demonstrated in transgenic mice and pigs lacking α-gal epitopes and producing anti-Gal, raising the possibility that these α-gal therapies may be considered for further evaluation in clinical trials.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0259504
Délia Cristina Figueira Aguiar ◽  
Washington Luiz Assunção Pereira ◽  
Gyselly de Cássia Bastos de Matos ◽  
Klena Sarges Marruaz da Silva ◽  
Rosane do Socorro Pompeu de Loiola ◽  

2021 ◽  
Candelaria Sanchez Fernandez ◽  
Elisa M Bolatti ◽  
Andres C.A. Culasso ◽  
Diego Chouhy ◽  
Martin M Kowalewski ◽  

Abstract Objective: In this study, we investigated the occurrence of papillomavirus (PV) infection in non-human primates (NHP, Platyrrhine) of northeastern Argentina by using broad-spectrum PCR primers at the L1 gene. In addition, we conducted a phylogenetic and coalescence analysis of viral sequences to explore their evolutionary history and evaluate the co-speciation hypothesis in the context of primate evolution. Methods: We obtained samples of 57 individuals from wild and captive populations of Alouatta caraya, Sapajus nigritus and Sapajus cay. We assessed PV infection by PCR amplification with the CUT primer system and sequencing of 337 bp (112 amino acids) of the L1 protein. The viral sequences were analyzed by phylogenetic and Bayesian coalescence methods to estimate the age of the most common recent ancestor (tMCRA) with BEAST, v1.4.8 software. We evaluated viral/host tree congruence with TreeMap v3.0. Results: We identified two novel putative PV sequences of the genus Gamma- PV in Sapajus sp and Alouatta caraya (SPV1 and AcPV1, respectively). The tMRCA of SPV1 was estimated at 11,941,682 years before present (ybp) and that of AcPV1 at 46,638,071 ybp, both predating the coalescence times of their hosts: 6.4 million years (MYA) and 6.8 MYA, respectively. Based on the comparison of primate and viral phylogenies, we could not reject the null hypothesis that the PV tree is no more congruent with the host tree than a random tree would be (P>0.05). Thus, a model of virus-host coevolution was rejected. Conclusion: This study presents the first report of PV infection in Platyrrhine species from Argentina, expands the range of described hosts for these viruses, and proposes new scenarios for their origin and dispersal.

2021 ◽  
Asheley H. B. Pereira ◽  
Claudia A. A. Lopes ◽  
Thalita A. Pissinatti ◽  
Ana C. A. Pinto ◽  
Daniel R. A. Oliveira ◽  

Abstract Herein we present the pathological findings of different tuberculosis stages in Old and New World monkeys kept under human care in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and naturally infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex. Fifteen nonhuman primates from five different colonies were incorporated into the study. There are 60% (9/15) Old World Monkeys and 40% (6/15) New World Monkeys. According to the gross and histopathologic findings, the lesions in nonhuman primates of this study are classified into the chronic-active, extrapulmonary, early-activation or latent-reactivation tuberculosis stage. Among the Old World Monkey, 66.7% (6/9) of nonhuman primates, all rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), showed severe granulomatous pneumonia. In all Old World Monkeys cases, typical granulomas were seen in at least one organ regardless of the stage of the disease. In the New World Monkeys, the typical pulmonary granulomas were seen in 16.7% (1/6) of the cases, just in the latent-reactivation stage in Uta Hick’s Bearded Saki (Chiropotes utahickae). In this study, 66.7% (6/9) of Old World Monkeys (OWM) and 83.3% (5/6) of New World Monkeys (NWM) showed pulmonary changes at the histological evaluation. The tuberculosis diagnosis in the nonhuman primates in this study was based on pathological, immunohistochemical, molecular, and bacteriological culture. Although the typical presentation was observed in some cases, the absence of pulmonary granuloma did not exclude the tuberculosis occurrence in nonhuman primates of the Old and New World. Tuberculosis should be included as a cause of interstitial pneumonia with foamy macrophages infiltration in the New World nonhuman primates. Due to the high sensitivity of immunohistochemistry with Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we suggest the addition of this technique as a diagnostic tool of tuberculosis in the nonhuman primates even when the typical changes are not seen.

2021 ◽  
Vol 376 (1836) ◽  
pp. 20200239
Sita M. ter Haar ◽  
Ahana A. Fernandez ◽  
Maya Gratier ◽  
Mirjam Knörnschild ◽  
Claartje Levelt ◽  

A key feature of vocal ontogeny in a variety of taxa with extensive vocal repertoires is a developmental pattern in which vocal exploration is followed by a period of category formation that results in a mature species-specific repertoire. Vocal development preceding the adult repertoire is often called ‘babbling’, a term used to describe aspects of vocal development in species of vocal-learning birds, some marine mammals, some New World monkeys, some bats and humans. The paper summarizes the results of research on babbling in examples from five taxa and proposes a unifying definition facilitating their comparison. There are notable similarities across these species in the developmental pattern of vocalizations, suggesting that vocal production learning might require babbling. However, the current state of the literature is insufficient to confirm this suggestion. We suggest directions for future research to elucidate this issue, emphasizing the importance of (i) expanding the descriptive data and seeking species with complex mature repertoires where babbling may not occur or may occur only to a minimal extent; (ii) (quasi-)experimental research to tease apart possible mechanisms of acquisition and/or self-organizing development; and (iii) computational modelling as a methodology to test hypotheses about the origins and functions of babbling. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Vocal learning in animals and humans’.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 128-134
O. V. Pidpala ◽  
L. L. Lukash

Aim.To analyze the distribution of species-specific mobile genetic elements (MGE) in orthologs of the MGMT gene in Platyrrhina. Methods. The homology between nucleotide sequences was determined by BLAST 2.6.1. The results of the search and identification of MGE were performed  using  the  CENSOR program. Results. On the example of orthologs of the MGMT gene in New World monkeys, it has been shown that different species-specific MGE identified in their intron sequences may have different evolutionary chronologies. In the case of the element Alu2_TS, which originated in the Tarsiiformes representative, it was found that in evolutionarily close primates it undergoes deletion degradation, while fragments of the human-specific L1Hs element are found in the genomes of evolutionarily distant primates long before the formation and emergence of this retroelement. Conclusions. The chronology of  evolutionary changes in the gene MGMT and its species-specific MGE can be of different nature and occur in parallele and independently. Keywords: Platyrrhina, MGMT gene, MGE, Alu2_TS, L1Hs.

Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 844
Simona Ceraulo ◽  
Polina L. Perelman ◽  
Sofia Mazzoleni ◽  
Michail Rovatsos ◽  
Francesca Dumas

Tamarins are a distinct group of small sized New World monkeys with complex phylogenetic relationships and poorly studied cytogenetic traits. In this study, we applied molecular cytogenetic analyses by fluorescence in situ hybridization with probes specific for telomeric sequences and ribosomal DNA loci after DAPI/CMA3 staining on metaphases from five tamarin species, namely Leontocebus fuscicollis, Leontopithecus rosalia, Saguinus geoffroyi, Saguinus mystax and Saguinus oedipus, with the aim to investigate the distribution of repetitive sequences and their possible role in genome evolution. Our analyses revealed that all five examined species show similar karyotypes, 2n = 46, which differ mainly in the morphology of chromosome pairs 16–17 and 19–22, due to the diverse distribution of rDNA loci, the amplification of telomeric-like sequences, the presence of heterochromatic blocks and/or putative chromosomal rearrangements, such as inversions. The differences in cytogenetic traits between species of tamarins are discussed in a comparative phylogenetic framework, and in addition to data from previous studies, we underline synapomorphies and apomorphisms that appeared during the diversification of this group of New World monkeys.

Paula N. Gonzalez ◽  
Mariana Vallejo-Azar ◽  
Leandro Aristide ◽  
Ricardo Lopes ◽  
Sergio F. dos Reis ◽  

Xiaolian Li ◽  
Qi Zhu ◽  
Wim Vanduffel

AbstractThe visuotopic organization of dorsal visual cortex rostral to area V2 in primates has been a longstanding source of controversy. Using sub-millimeter phase-encoded retinotopic fMRI mapping, we recently provided evidence for a surprisingly similar visuotopic organization in dorsal visual cortex of macaques compared to previously published maps in New world monkeys (Zhu and Vanduffel, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 116:2306–2311, 2019). Although individual quadrant representations could be robustly delineated in that study, their grouping into hemifield representations remains a major challenge. Here, we combined in-vivo high-resolution myelin density mapping based on MR imaging (400 µm isotropic resolution) with fine-grained retinotopic fMRI to quantitatively compare myelin densities across retinotopically defined visual areas in macaques. Complementing previously documented differences in populational receptive-field (pRF) size and visual field signs, myelin densities of both quadrants of the dorsolateral posterior area (DLP) and area V3A are significantly different compared to dorsal and ventral area V3. Moreover, no differences in myelin density were observed between the two matching quadrants belonging to areas DLP, V3A, V1, V2 and V4, respectively. This was not the case, however, for the dorsal and ventral quadrants of area V3, which showed significant differences in MR-defined myelin densities, corroborating evidence of previous myelin staining studies. Interestingly, the pRF sizes and visual field signs of both quadrant representations in V3 are not different. Although myelin density correlates with curvature and anticorrelates with cortical thickness when measured across the entire cortex, exactly as in humans, the myelin density results in the visual areas cannot be explained by variability in cortical thickness and curvature between these areas. The present myelin density results largely support our previous model to group the two quadrants of DLP and V3A, rather than grouping DLP- with V3v into a single area VLP, or V3d with V3A+ into DM.

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