histological evaluation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 829
Sebastian Schlaweck ◽  
Claus Juergen Bauer ◽  
Friederike Schmitz ◽  
Peter Brossart ◽  
Tobias A. W. Holderried ◽  

Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is a rare complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) caused by endothelial dysfunction. Previous definitions and diagnostic criteria for the presence of SOS include bilirubinemia, hepatomegaly and weight gain, but histological evaluation is still the only way to prove the diagnosis of SOS. However, biopsy remains an invasive technique and is therefore undesirable in the alloHSCT scenario. Hence, a non-invasive diagnostic strategy is critical. Besides thorough clinical assessment and laboratory values, ultrasound examination remains part of the diagnostic workflow in clinical routine. Previous studies defined sonographic abnormalities, which are associated with the occurrence of SOS, but a standardized protocol to perform reliable abdominal ultrasound has not been finally defined. In this study, we evaluated a multi-parameter protocol including laboratory values as well as ultrasound examination pre- and post-alloHSCT. The application of this protocol was feasible in clinical practice and achieved a high inter- and intra-rater reliability. In our population, no case of SOS was identifiable and, in line with previous studies, no changes known to be associated with SOS were detected by ultrasound examination in our cohort. Additionally, we investigated subgroups of patients partly fulfilling SOS diagnostic criteria analyzing correlations between the fulfilled criteria and aberrances in ultrasound measurements pre- and post-alloHSCT. Although statistical examination may be limited by a small sample size and missing SOS cases, hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia and weight gain showed only a coincidence with selected, enlarged liver dimensions in few patients. This may underline the fact that hepatomegaly occurs as an unspecific finding after alloHSCT. Our protocol, including the ultrasound examination pre- and post-alloHSCT and laboratory parameters, may help to rule out SOS early, but validation in a greater population and different transplantation centers is required to warrant broader appliance. Nevertheless, we aim to contribute to an elaborate and standardized work-flow in peri-alloHSCT patient care.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Andrew Sun ◽  
Jeffrey Sun ◽  
Cheuk-Kay Sun

Gastric hemangiomas (GHs) are extremely rare vascular lesions of mesodermal origin that may occur in isolation or in conjunction with underlying congenital pathology. Due to the scarcity of these tumors, there is no standardized diagnostic method; however, many have found the combination of endoscopic investigation and radiographic imaging to be most effective, with the presence of phleboliths on computerized tomography as being pathognomonic for GHs. Surgical treatment for symptomatic lesions is curative with no reports of recurrence. We describe a 21-year-old woman who presented with epigastric pain and one episode of 250 mL hematemesis earlier that morning. Under the impression of an upper gastrointestinal bleed due to peptic ulcer disease, esophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed which revealed a 5-cm blood clot-like mass similar in appearance to that of a II-b peptic ulcer, but the presence of a bridging fold led to the suspicion of a possible submucosal tumor. Dynamic computerized tomography scan showed similar findings, and the patient was referred for surgical intervention. Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy was performed with the final diagnosis of cavernous GH made via histological evaluation. The patient was discharged 9 days later with no complications. This case puts emphasis on the importance of considering cavernous GH as a potential cause of severe upper GI bleeding especially in those with atypical demographic profile and history.

2022 ◽  
Marie Sophie Alfano ◽  
Vincenzo Villanacci ◽  
Dario Moneghini ◽  
Arianna Oberti ◽  
Nazario Portolani

Abstract Background: Although Clear-cell carcinoma has been found in various organs as a variant of ductal carcinoma of the pancreas, it still hasn’t been well recognized. According to the WHO classification, primary Clear-cell carcinoma of the pancreas is rare, and it is classified as a “miscellaneous” carcinoma. To date it has been poorly characterized and only few cases have been reported in the literature [1]. Case presentation: We report here an unusual case of Clear-cell carcinoma in a 59-year-old man involving the head of the pancreas and the second part of the duodenum initially misconceived as pyloric gland adenoma, a rare duodenal entity. Nevertheless, duodenal sub stenosis was suspected of malignancy, so further investigations were made. Subsequent abdominal computed tomography (CT) detected not only a duodenal vegetation but also an alteration of the duodenal-pancreatic interface with thickening of the duodenal wall and a common bile duct dilatation. The malignant clinical aspect and behavior of the lesion, associated to the impossibility of further investigations due to the duodenal sub stenosis, led to an exploratory laparotomy.The laparotomy revealed a retracting area straddling the duodenum and the pancreatic head. A duodenum pancreatectomy of the head of the pancreas with extended lymphadenectomy was performed and the histological evaluation showed a ductal Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the pancreas infiltrating the duodenum. The postoperative course was characterized by a pancreatic fistula grade B. At 6 months from the surgery, the patient hasn’t had recurrence.Conclusion: Because it is a rare tumor with very few cases reported previously, the incidence and prognosis are not well known for this neoplasm. The report of our case would aid in the identification of this rare neoplasm. Further studies and more case reports are needed to clarify the diagnosis and prognostic significance of the clear cell differentiation of these tumors.

Gels ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 49
Hatem Alnojeidi ◽  
Ruhangiz Taghi Kilani ◽  
Aziz Ghahary

(1) Background: Developing a high-quality, injectable biomaterial that is labor-saving, cost-efficient, and patient-ready is highly desirable. Our research group has previously developed a collagen-based injectable scaffold for the treatment of a variety of wounds including wounds with deep and irregular beds. Here, we investigated the biocompatibility of our liquid scaffold in mice and compared the results to a commercially available injectable granular collagen-based product. (2) Methods: Scaffolds were applied in sub-dermal pockets on the dorsum of mice. To examine the interaction between the scaffolds and the host tissue, samples were harvested after 1 and 2 weeks and stained for collagen content using Masson’s Trichrome staining. Immunofluorescence staining and quantification were performed to assess the type and number of cells infiltrating each scaffold. (3) Results: Histological evaluation after 1 and 2 weeks demonstrated early and efficient integration of our liquid scaffold with no evident adverse foreign body reaction. This rapid incorporation was accompanied by significant cellular infiltration of stromal and immune cells into the scaffold when compared to the commercial product (p < 0.01) and the control group (p < 0.05). Contrarily, the commercial scaffold induced a foreign body reaction as it was surrounded by a capsule-like, dense cellular layer during the 2-week period, resulting in delayed integration and hampered cellular infiltration. (4) Conclusion: Results obtained from this study demonstrate the potential use of our liquid scaffold as an advanced injectable wound matrix for the management of skin wounds with complex geometries.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0256512
Fumin Fu ◽  
Michael Pietropaolo ◽  
Lei Cui ◽  
Shilpa Pandit ◽  
Weiyan Li ◽  

The mouse is a useful preclinical species for evaluating disease etiology due to the availability of a wide variety of genetically modified strains and the ability to perform disease-modifying manipulations. In order to establish an atrial filtration (AF) model in our laboratory, we profiled several commonly used murine AF models. We initially evaluated a pharmacological model of acute carbachol (CCh) treatment plus atrial burst pacing in C57BL/6 mice. In an effort to observe micro-reentrant circuits indicative of authentic AF, we employed optical mapping imaging in isolated mouse hearts. While CCh reduced atrial refractoriness and increased atrial tachyarrhythmia vulnerability, the left atrial (LA) excitation patterns were rather regular without reentrant circuits or wavelets. Therefore, the atrial tachyarrhythmia resembled high frequency atrial flutter, not typical AF per se. We next examined both a chronic angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion model and the surgical model of transverse aortic constriction (TAC), which have both been reported to induce atrial and ventricular structural changes that serve as a substrates for micro-reentrant AF. Although we observed some extent of atrial remodeling such as fibrosis or enlarged LA diameter, burst pacing-induced atrial tachyarrhythmia vulnerability did not differ from control mice in either model. This again suggested that an AF-like pathophysiology is difficult to demonstrate in the mouse. To continue searching for a valid murine AF model, we studied mice with a cardiac-specific deficiency (KO) in liver kinase B1 (Cardiac-LKB1), which has been reported to exhibit spontaneous AF. Indeed, the electrocardiograms (ECG) of conscious Cardiac-LKB1 KO mice exhibited no P waves and had irregular RR intervals, which are characteristics of AF. Histological evaluation of Cardiac-LKB1 KO mice revealed dilated and fibrotic atria, again consistent with AF. However, atrial electrograms and optical mapping revealed that electrical activity was limited to the sino-atrial node area with no electrical conduction into the atrial myocardium beyond. Thus, Cardiac-LKB1 KO mice have severe atrial myopathy or atrial standstill, but not AF. In summary, the atrial tachyarrhythmias we observed in the four murine models were distinct from typical human AF, which often exhibits micro- or macro-reentrant atrial circuits. Our results suggest that the four murine AF models we examined may not reflect human AF well, and raise a cautionary note for use of those murine models to study AF.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kohei Nagai ◽  
Takenobu Ishii ◽  
Tatsukuni Ohno ◽  
Yasushi Nishii

Recently, it has been reported that γδ T cells are associated with the pathology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there are many uncertainties about their relationship. In this study, we investigated the morphological and histological properties of peripheral as well as temporomandibular joints (TMJ) in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis with and without exposure to mechanical strain on the TMJ. Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) was induced by administering collagen type II antibody and lipopolysaccharide to male DBA/1JNCrlj mice at 9−12 weeks of age, and mechanical stress (MS) was applied to the mandibular condyle. After 14 days, 3D morphological evaluation by micro-CT, histological staining (Hematoxylin Eosin, Safranin O, and Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase staining), and immunohistochemical staining (ADAMTS-5 antibody, CD3 antibody, CD45 antibody, RORγt antibody, γδ T cell receptor antibody) were performed. The lower jawbone was collected. The mandibular condyle showed a rough change in the surface of the mandibular condyle based on three-dimensional analysis by micro-CT imaging. Histological examination revealed bone and cartilage destruction, such as a decrease in chondrocyte layer width and an increase in the number of osteoclasts in the mandibular condyle. Then, immune-histological staining revealed accumulation of T and γδ T cells in the subchondral bone. The temporomandibular joint is less sensitive to the onset of RA, but it has been suggested that it is exacerbated by mechanical stimulation. Additionally, the involvement of γδ T cells was suggested as the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 265
Mihail Spînu ◽  
Laurenţiu Horea Onea ◽  
Călin Homorodean ◽  
Maria Olinic ◽  
Mihai Claudiu Ober ◽  

Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide, with coronary artery disease being the predominant underlying etiology. The most prevalent coronary lesions are represented by the atherosclerotic plaques, in more than 85% of cases, but there are several other non-atherosclerotic lesions such as spontaneous coronary artery dissection and/or hematoma and spontaneous recanalization of coronary thrombus, which are less common, approximately 5% of cases, but with similar clinical manifestations as well as complications. There are insufficient data regarding the pathological mechanism, true prevalence and optimal treatment of these kind of coronary lesions. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an intracoronary imaging technique, developed in order to overcome the diagnostic limitations of a standard coronary angiography and has an extremely high resolution, similar to that of a usual histological evaluation of a biopsy sample, thus, OCT provides a histological-like information, but in a in vivo environment. The aim of this article is to review the current knowledge regarding non-atherosclerotic coronary lesions, with an emphasis on the importance of OCT for optimal identification, characterization of pathogenic mechanisms and optimal treatment selection.

Medicina ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
pp. 73
Yuta Niimi ◽  
Kyoko Baba ◽  
Masako Tsuchida ◽  
Akira Takeda

Background and Objectives: Wound healing (WH) is a complex natural process: the achieving of a proper WH with standard therapies sometimes is not fulfilled and it is often observed in aged and diabetic patients, leading to intractable ulcers. In recent years, autologous micrograft (AMG) therapies have become a new, effective, and affordable wound care strategy among both researchers and clinicians. In this study, a 72-year-old female patient underwent a combination of treatments using micrograft and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on a postoperative skin ulcer after a benign tumor resection on the back with the aim to present an innovative method to treat skin ulceration using AMG combined with an artificial dermal scaffold and NPWT. Materials and Methods: A section of the artificial dermal scaffold, infused with micrografts, was sampled prior to transplant, and sections were collected postoperatively on days 3 and 7. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical stains were employed for the evaluation of Cytokeratin AE1/AE3, desmin, and Factor VIII. Additionally, on postoperative day 3, NPWT dressing was evaluated using HE stains, as well. The resulting HE and immunostaining analysis revealed red blood cells and tissue fragments within the collagen layers of the artificial dermis prior to transplant. On postoperative day 3, collagen layers of the artificial dermis revealed red blood cells and neutrophils based on HE stains, and scattering of cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive cells were detected by immunostaining. The HE stains on postoperative day 7 showed more red blood cells and neutrophils within the collagen layers of the artificial dermis than on day 3, an increase in cytokeratin AE1/AE3-positive cells, and tissue stained positively with desmin and Factor VIII. Results: Results suggest that the effects of both micrografts and migratory cells have likely accelerated the wound healing process. Furthermore, the NPWT dressing on day 3 showed almost no cells within the dressing. This indicated that restarting NPWT therapy immediately after micrograft transplant did not draw out cells within the scaffold. Conclusions: Micrograft treatment and NPWT may serve to be a useful combination therapy for complex processes of wound healing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yoshimasa Imoto ◽  
Shigeharu Ueki ◽  
Yukinori Kato ◽  
Kanako Yoshida ◽  
Taiyo Morikawa ◽  

Background: Eosinophilic chronic sinusitis (ECRS) is a subtype of CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) that is frequently comorbid with asthma. Notably, ECRS patients often show a high recurrence of NPs after surgical resection. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipocytes that has been implicated in airway inflammatory diseases. However, to date, the role of leptin in ECRS has not been investigated.Objective: To determine whether the serum levels of leptin are altered in patients with ECRS.Methods: In total, 40 patients with ECRS, 15 patients with non-eosinophilic CRS (non-ECRS), and 12 individuals without CRS (control) were included in this study. Patient’s serum leptin levels were assessed, and the number of eosinophils in their NPs were measured through a histological evaluation of the three densest areas with cellular infiltrate beneath the epithelial surface. Finally, nasal fibroblast cultures established from NPs were stimulated with varying concentrations of recombinant leptin in vitro to determine whether leptin affects eotaxin-3 (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 26 :26: CCL26) expression.Results: The serum leptin levels in both the ECRS and non-ECRS groups were significantly higher than those in the control subjects (p &lt; 0.0001 vs. ECRS; p &lt; 0.05 vs. non-ECRS). Furthermore, ECRS patients displayed significantly elevated serum leptin levels compared to non-ECRS patients (p &lt; 0.001), although there was no difference in body mass index between the groups. Notably, serum leptin levels were correlated with the proportion of eosinophils in peripheral blood (r = 0.3575, p &lt; 0.01) and the number of eosinophils in NPs (r = 0.5109, p &lt; 0.0001). Serum leptin levels were also correlated with eotaxin-3 mRNA expression in NPs (r = 0.5374, p &lt; 0.01). Finally, leptin significantly augmented eotaxin-3 expression in nasal fibroblasts established in vitro from NPs in a leptin receptor-dependent manner (p &lt; 0.05).Conclusion: Leptin levels are elevated in ECRS patients and may both promote and indicate the severity of ECRS as well as systemic type 2-biased inflammatory responses. Combined, these data indicate that circulating leptin may play a significant role in the development of eosinophilic inflammation in NPs.

Martin L. Johansson ◽  
Leif Hultén ◽  
Olof Jonsson ◽  
Heithem Ben Amara ◽  
Peter Thomsen ◽  

AbstractIn this study, a soft-tissue-anchored, percutaneous port used as a mechanical continence-preserving valve in reservoir ileo- and urostomies was functionally and morphologically evaluated in eight dogs. During follow-up, the skin failed to attach to the implant, but the intestine inside the stoma port appeared to be attached to the mesh. After reaching adequate reservoir volume, the urostomies were rendered continent by attaching a lid to the implant. The experiments were ended at different time intervals due to implant-related adverse events. In only one case did the histological evaluation reveal integration at both the implant-intestine and implant-skin interfaces, with a low degree of inflammation and the absence of bacterial colonisation. In the remaining cases, integration was not obtained and instead mucosal downgrowth and biofilm formation were observed. The skin-implant junction was characterised by the absence of direct contact between the epidermis and the implant. Varying degrees of epidermal downgrowth, granulation tissue formation, inflammatory cell infiltration and bacterial growth and biofilm formation were prominent findings. In contrast, the subcutaneously located anchor part of the titanium port was well integrated and encapsulated by fibrous tissue. These results demonstrate the opportunity to achieve integration between a soft-tissue-anchored titanium port, skin and intestine. However, predictable long-term function could not be achieved in these animal models due to implant- and non-implant-related adverse events. Unless barriers at both the implant-skin and implant-intestine junctions are created, epidermal and mucosal downward migration and biofilm formation will jeopardise implant performance.

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