multiwall carbon nanotube
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2022 ◽  
Vol 46 ◽  
pp. 102557
Mohammad Rezaei Ardani ◽  
Ai Ling Pang ◽  
Ujjwal Pal ◽  
Rongkun Zheng ◽  
Agus Arsad ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 965
Sara Bakhtavar ◽  
Mehdi Mehrpooya ◽  
Mahboobeh Manoochehri ◽  
Mehrnoosh Karimkhani

In this study, a one-pot, low-temperature synthesis method is considered for the fabrication of heteroatom dope multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Doped MWCNT is utilized as an effective electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Single, double, and triple doping of boron, nitrogen and sulfur elements are utilized as the dopants. A reflux system with temperature of 180 °C is implemented in the doping procedure. Actually, unlike the previous studies in which doping on the carbon structures was performed using a furnace at temperatures above 700 °C, in this green and sustainable method, the triple doping on MWCNT is conducted at atmospheric pressure and low temperature. The morphology and structure of the fabricated catalysts were evaluated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. According to the results, the nanoparticles were encapsulated in the carbon nanotubes. Aggregated clusters of the sulfur in the case of S-MWCNT are considerable. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode, linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), and chronoamperometry electrochemical tests are employed for assessing the oxygen reduction activity of the catalysts. The results illustrate that by using this doping method, the onset potential shifts to positive values towards the oxidized MWCNT. It can be deduced that by doping the N, B, and S atoms on MWCNTs, the defects in the CNT structure, which serve as active sites for ORR application, increase. The N/S/B-doped graphitic layers have a more rapid electron transfer rate at the electrode/electrolyte interface. Thus, this can improve the electrochemistry performance and electron transfer of the MWCNTs. The best performance and electrochemical activity belonged to the NB-MWCNT catalyst (−0.122 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Also, based on the results gained from the Koutecky–Levich (KL) plot, it can be said that the ORR takes place through the 4 e− pathway.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 269
Antonio J. Paleo ◽  
Beate Krause ◽  
Maria F. Cerqueira ◽  
Enrique Muñoz ◽  
Petra Pötschke ◽  

The temperature dependent electrical conductivity σ (T) and thermopower (Seebeck coefficient) S (T) from 303.15 K (30 °C) to 373.15 K (100 °C) of an as-received commercial n-type vapour grown carbon nanofibre (CNF) powder and its melt-mixed polypropylene (PP) composite with 5 wt.% of CNFs have been analysed. At 30 °C, the σ and S of the CNF powder are ~136 S m−1 and −5.1 μV K−1, respectively, whereas its PP/CNF composite showed lower conductivities and less negative S-values of ~15 S m−1 and −3.4 μV K−1, respectively. The σ (T) of both samples presents a dσ/dT < 0 character described by the 3D variable range hopping (VRH) model. In contrast, their S (T) shows a dS/dT > 0 character, also observed in some doped multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mats with nonlinear thermopower behaviour, and explained here from the contribution of impurities in the CNF structure such as oxygen and sulphur, which cause sharply varying and localized states at approximately 0.09 eV above their Fermi energy level (EF).

Raja Venkata Sai Kiran Jakkula ◽  
Prabhu Sethuramalingam

In this investigative research work, the surface characteristics of normal paint and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) paint-coated substrates are studied. The experiments are conducted using ABB IRB 1410 Robot and the end effector of the robot is retrofitted with a high-volume low-pressure atomizer paint spray gun. The nanopaint is prepared by ultrasonication by placing 1 gram of MWCNT in a polyurethane commercial base paint (500 ml). Taguchi design of experiments is used to identify the most efficient use of procedure parameters using the L9 orthogonal array table. Heat transfer of the substrate is found by temperature measurements of the convective heat transfer through extended surfaces. Surface morphology is studied by scanning electron microscope and upright microscopy. Analysis of variance technique is used to find the most influencing input parameters and contribution of values to maximizing surface finish and minimizing the heat transfer effect. The study shows that there is an enhancement in surface finish and minimization of heat transfer in the nanopaint coated substrate when compared with normal paint application using the ABB robot.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 4439
Rudolf Kiefer ◽  
Fred Elhi ◽  
Anna-Liisa Peikolainen ◽  
Tarmo Tamm

The trend across the whole of society is to focus on natural and/or biodegradable materials such as cellulose (Cell) over synthetic polymers. Among other usage scenarios, Cell can be combined with electroactive components such as multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNT) to form composites, such as Cell-CNT fibers, for applications in actuators, sensors, and energy storage devices. In this work, we aim to show that by changing the potential window, qualitative multifunctionality of the composites can be invoked, in both electromechanical response as well as energy storage capability. Cell-CNT fibers were investigated in different potential ranges (0.8 V to −0.3 V, 0.55 V to −0.8 V, 1 V to −0.8 V, and 1.5 V to −0.8 V), revealing the transfer from cation-active to anion-active as the potential window shifted towards more positive potentials. Moreover, increasing the driving frequency also shifts the mode from cation- to anion-active. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy were conducted to determine the ion species participating in charge compensation under different conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (12) ◽  
pp. 6151-6159
Rajyashree M. Sundaram ◽  
Takeo Yamada ◽  
Ken Kokubo ◽  
Kenji Hata ◽  
Atsuko Sekiguchi

In this work, we demonstrate controlled introduction of O-functional groups on commercial carbon nanotube fibers (CNTFs) with different nanotube morphologies obtained by dry- and wet-spinning by treatment with gaseous ozone (O3(g)). Our test samples were (1) wet-spun fibers of smalldiameter (1–2 nm) singlewall (SW)-CNTs and (2) dry-spun fibers containing large-diameter (20 nm) multiwall (MW)-CNTs. Our results indicate that SW-CNTFs undergo oxygenation to a higher extent than MW-CNTFs due to the higher reactivity of SW-CNTs with a larger curvature strain. Oxygenation resulting from O3 exposure was evidenced as increase in surface O atomic% (at% by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XPS) and as reductions in G/D (by Raman spectroscopy) as well as electrical conductivities due to changes in nanotube graphitic structure. By XPS, we identified the emergence of various types of O-functionalities on the fiber surfaces. After long duration O3 exposure (>300 s for SW-CNTFs and >600 s for MW-CNTFs), both sp2 C═O (carbonyl) and sp3 C–O moieties (ether/hydroxy) were observed on fiber surfaces. Whereas, only sp3 C–O (ether/hydroxy) components were observed after shorter exposure times. O3 treatment led to only changes in surface chemistry, while the fiber morphology, microstructure and dimensions remained unaltered. We believe the surface chemistry controllability demonstrated here on commercial fibers spun by different methods containing nanotubes of different structures is of significance in aiding the practical application development of CNTFs.

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