functional diversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107777
Author(s):  
Alistair John Campbell ◽  
Elinor M. Lichtenberg ◽  
Luísa Gigante Carvalheiro ◽  
Cristiano Menezes ◽  
Rafael Cabral Borges ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 324 ◽  
pp. 107708
Author(s):  
Vicente García-Navas ◽  
Carlos Martínez-Núñez ◽  
Rubén Tarifa ◽  
Antonio J. Manzaneda ◽  
Francisco Valera ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Yang Wang ◽  
Jin Chen ◽  
Limin Zhang ◽  
Ling Feng ◽  
Lingbin Yan ◽  
...  

The relationships among species diversity, functional diversity, functional redundancy, and community stability are central to community and ecosystem ecology. This paper examines plant communities at different stages of vegetation restoration in the Guizhou karst plateau to study the relationship among functional diversity, functional redundancy, and stability of plant communities. The most important results include the following. (1) Species diversity (SD), functional redundancy (FR), and stability (STB) gradually increased with restoration, and there were significant differences among the different stages; functional diversity (FD) increased at first and then decreased, and reached the highest level at the tree irrigation stage. (2) Plant height (PLH) and specific leaf area (SLA) were functional traits that affected the diversity and stability of the plant community, and PLH was positively correlated with plant community diversity and stability, while SLA was negatively correlated with plant community diversity and stability. (3) During the community recovery, FD and FR interacted to maintain stability. In the early and late stages of recovery, the effect of functional redundancy on stability was greater than that of functional diversity, but it was the opposite in the middle stages. (4) The tree irrigation stage is the likely point at which the species diversity of plant communities in karst areas reached saturation, and the growth rate of functional redundancy after species diversity saturation was greater than that before saturation.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Huaihai Chen ◽  
Kayan Ma ◽  
Yu Huang ◽  
Jiajiang Lin ◽  
Christopher Schadt ◽  
...  

Abstract. Understanding the relationship between soil microbial taxonomic compositions and functional profiles is essential for predicting ecosystem functions under various environmental disturbances. However, even though microbial communities are sensitive to disturbance, ecosystem functions remain relatively stable, as soil microbes are likely to be functionally redundant. Microbial functional redundancy may be more associated with “broad” functions carried out by a wide range of microbes, than with “narrow” functions specialized by specific microorganisms. Thus, a comprehensive study to evaluate how microbial taxonomic compositions correlate with “broad” and “narrow” functional profiles is necessary. Here, we evaluated soil metagenomes worldwide to assess whether functional and taxonomic diversities differ significantly between the five “broad” and the five “narrow” functions that we chose. Our results revealed that compared with the five “broad” functions, soil microbes capable of performing the five “narrow” functions were more taxonomically diverse, and thus their functional diversity was more dependent on taxonomic diversity, implying lower levels of functional redundancy in “narrow” functions. Co-occurrence networks indicated that microorganisms conducting “broad” functions were positively related, but microbes specializing “narrow” functions were interacting mostly negatively. Our study provides strong evidence to support our hypothesis that functional redundancy is significantly different between “broad” and “narrow” functions in soil microbes, as the association of functional diversity with taxonomy were greater in the five “narrow” rather than the five “broad” functions.


2022 ◽  
pp. 129-164
Author(s):  
Thomas C. A. Hitch ◽  
◽  
David Wylensek ◽  
Jürgen Harlizius ◽  
Thomas Clavel ◽  
...  

The community of microorganisms inhabiting the intestine of mammals are referred to as the gut microbiome and are known to influence the health of their host. Despite extensive work in the last decades, we still know remarkably little about their diversity and the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions with the host. After reviewing the main methods used to analyse gut microbiomes, we summarize data on the structural and functional diversity of the microbial ecosystem in pigs and also highlight the potential of cultivation and applications based on the use of minimal bacterial consortia.


Author(s):  
Stine K. Jacobsen ◽  
Lene Sigsgaard ◽  
Anna B. Johansen ◽  
Kristian Thorup-Kristensen ◽  
Per M. Jensen

Abstract Introduction Agricultural intensification results in biodiversity loss through land conversion and management practices which negatively impact arthropods. The abundance and diversity of ground-dwelling predators, e.g. ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneae), are negatively affected by soil disturbances such as tillage. Reducing soil disturbances can potentially conserve arthropod populations in the field and reduce the use of chemical pest controls. The present study investigated the ground-dwelling predatory community using pitfall traps in cereal fields with three different levels of soil disturbance: conventional tillage, reduced tillage and no tillage under Conservation Agriculture management, in 2018 and 2019. Pitfall traps were placed in transects from the field margins. Overall, the activity-density of ground-dwelling predators was higher in fields with minimum soil disturbance and generally declined with increased distance to semi-natural habitats. Functional diversity, expressed by the body size of ground beetles, was also affected by soil disturbances; large ground beetles more consistently occurred in CA, while few or none of the largest ground beetles were found in RT and CT. A higher sample-heterogeneity in less disturbed fields was indicated by a more variable median and higher skewness in the number of predators in those fields. In 2019 only, species diversity was higher along field edges bordering semi-natural habitats when compared to the cropped area. Our results show that reduced tillage supports predator arthropod communities at a local scale: It also bolsters agro-ecosystem resilience by promoting a higher activity-density and by increasing the heterogeneity and functional diversity of ground-dwelling predators. Implications for insect conservation The results obtained in the present study show that soil disturbances significantly influence arthropod abundance and diversity. Conservation of epigeic natural enemies in the agricultural landscape is improved by reducing soil-disturbing events such as tillage.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Leticia Bonilla-Valencia ◽  
Silvia Castillo-Argüero ◽  
José Alejandro Zavala-Hurtado ◽  
Francisco Javier Espinosa-García ◽  
Roberto Lindig-Cisneros ◽  
...  

Functional diversity is related to the maintenance of processes and functions in ecosystems. However, there is a lack of a conceptual framework that highlights the application of functional diversity as an ecological indicator. Therefore, we present a new initiative for motivating the development of ecological indicators based on functional diversity. We are interested in showing the challenges and solutions associated with these indicators. We integrated species assemblage theories and literature reviews. We considered plant traits related to ecosystem processes and functions (specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, wood density, phenology, and seed mass) to show the application of a selection of functional diversity metrics that can be used as ecological indicators (i.e., Community Weighted-Mean, Functional Divergence, Functional Richness and Functional Evenness). We caution that functional diversity as an ecological indicator can be misinterpreted if species composition is unknown. Functional diversity values can be overrepresented by weed species (species established in disturbed sites) and do not maintain original processes and functions in ecosystems. Therefore, we searched for evidence to demonstrate that weed species are ecological indicators of functional diversity changes. We found support for two hypotheses that explain the effect of weed species on ecosystem function: functional homogenization and functional transformation. Likewise, we showed the application of some tools that can help study the anthropogenic effect on functional indicators. This review shows that the paradigm of addressing the effects of disturbances on ecosystem processes by using functional diversity as an ecological indicator can improve environmental evaluation, particularly in areas affected by human activities.


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