Machine Learning Algorithm
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2022 ◽  
Vol 165 ◽  
pp. 105538
Author(s):  
Joshua Guedalia ◽  
Rivka Farkash ◽  
Netanel Wasserteil ◽  
Yair Kasirer ◽  
Misgav Rottenstreich ◽  
...  

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 181
Author(s):  
Anna Landsmann ◽  
Jann Wieler ◽  
Patryk Hejduk ◽  
Alexander Ciritsis ◽  
Karol Borkowski ◽  
...  

The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a machine learning algorithm to accurately classify parenchymal density in spiral breast-CT (BCT), using a deep convolutional neural network (dCNN). In this retrospectively designed study, 634 examinations of 317 patients were included. After image selection and preparation, 5589 images from 634 different BCT examinations were sorted by a four-level density scale, ranging from A to D, using ACR BI-RADS-like criteria. Subsequently four different dCNN models (differences in optimizer and spatial resolution) were trained (70% of data), validated (20%) and tested on a “real-world” dataset (10%). Moreover, dCNN accuracy was compared to a human readout. The overall performance of the model with lowest resolution of input data was highest, reaching an accuracy on the “real-world” dataset of 85.8%. The intra-class correlation of the dCNN and the two readers was almost perfect (0.92) and kappa values between both readers and the dCNN were substantial (0.71–0.76). Moreover, the diagnostic performance between the readers and the dCNN showed very good correspondence with an AUC of 0.89. Artificial Intelligence in the form of a dCNN can be used for standardized, observer-independent and reliable classification of parenchymal density in a BCT examination.


2022 ◽  
pp. 026540752110470
Author(s):  
Laura M. Vowels ◽  
Matthew J. Vowels ◽  
Kristen P. Mark

Sexual satisfaction has been robustly associated with relationship and individual well-being. Previous studies have found several individual (e.g., gender, self-esteem, and attachment) and relational (e.g., relationship satisfaction, relationship length, and sexual desire) factors that predict sexual satisfaction. The aim of the present study was to identify which variables are the strongest, and the least strong, predictors of sexual satisfaction using modern machine learning. Previous research has relied primarily on traditional statistical models which are limited in their ability to estimate a large number of predictors, non-linear associations, and complex interactions. Through a machine learning algorithm, random forest (a potentially more flexible extension of decision trees), we predicted sexual satisfaction across two samples (total N = 1846; includes 754 individuals forming 377 couples). We also used a game theoretic interpretation technique, Shapley values, which allowed us to estimate the size and direction of the effect of each predictor variable on the model outcome. Findings showed that sexual satisfaction is highly predictable (48–62% of variance explained) with relationship variables (relationship satisfaction, importance of sex in relationship, romantic love, and dyadic desire) explaining the most variance in sexual satisfaction. The study highlighted important factors to focus on in future research and interventions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mengwei Liu ◽  
Yujia Zhang ◽  
Jiachuang Wang ◽  
Nan Qin ◽  
Heng Yang ◽  
...  

AbstractObject recognition is among the basic survival skills of human beings and other animals. To date, artificial intelligence (AI) assisted high-performance object recognition is primarily visual-based, empowered by the rapid development of sensing and computational capabilities. Here, we report a tactile-olfactory sensing array, which was inspired by the natural sense-fusion system of star-nose mole, and can permit real-time acquisition of the local topography, stiffness, and odor of a variety of objects without visual input. The tactile-olfactory information is processed by a bioinspired olfactory-tactile associated machine-learning algorithm, essentially mimicking the biological fusion procedures in the neural system of the star-nose mole. Aiming to achieve human identification during rescue missions in challenging environments such as dark or buried scenarios, our tactile-olfactory intelligent sensing system could classify 11 typical objects with an accuracy of 96.9% in a simulated rescue scenario at a fire department test site. The tactile-olfactory bionic sensing system required no visual input and showed superior tolerance to environmental interference, highlighting its great potential for robust object recognition in difficult environments where other methods fall short.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Chao Zhang ◽  
Peisi Zhong ◽  
Mei Liu ◽  
Qingjun Song ◽  
Zhongyuan Liang ◽  
...  

The K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm is a classical machine learning algorithm. Most KNN algorithms are based on a single metric and do not further distinguish between repeated values in the range of K values, which can lead to a reduced classification effect and thus affect the accuracy of fault diagnosis. In this paper, a hybrid metric-based KNN algorithm is proposed to calculate a composite metric containing distance and direction information between test samples, which improves the discriminability of the samples. In the experiments, the hybrid metric KNN (HM-KNN) algorithm proposed in this paper is compared and validated with a variety of KNN algorithms based on a single distance metric on six data sets, and an HM-KNN application method is given for the forward gait stability control of a bipedal robot, where the abnormal motion is considered as a fault, and the distribution of zero moment points when the abnormal motion is generated is compared. The experimental results show that the algorithm has good data differentiation and generalization ability for different data sets, and it is feasible to apply it to the walking stability control of bipedal robots based on deep neural network control.


Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Author(s):  
Thomas Verissimo ◽  
Anna Faivre ◽  
Sebastian Sgardello ◽  
Maarten Naesens ◽  
Sophie de Seigneux ◽  
...  

Renal transplantation is the gold-standard procedure for end-stage renal disease patients, improving quality of life and life expectancy. Despite continuous advancement in the management of post-transplant complications, progress is still needed to increase the graft lifespan. Early identification of patients at risk of rapid graft failure is critical to optimize their management and slow the progression of the disease. In 42 kidney grafts undergoing protocol biopsies at reperfusion, we estimated the renal metabolome from RNAseq data. The estimated metabolites’ abundance was further used to predict the renal function within the first year of transplantation through a random forest machine learning algorithm. Using repeated K-fold cross-validation we first built and then tuned our model on a training dataset. The optimal model accurately predicted the one-year eGFR, with an out-of-bag root mean square root error (RMSE) that was 11.8 ± 7.2 mL/min/1.73 m2. The performance was similar in the test dataset, with a RMSE of 12.2 ± 3.2 mL/min/1.73 m2. This model outperformed classic statistical models. Reperfusion renal metabolome may be used to predict renal function one year after allograft kidney recipients.


Author(s):  
Judita Preiss

AbstractWe exploit the Twitter platform to create a dataset of news articles derived from tweets concerning COVID-19, and use the associated tweets to define a number of popularity measures. The focus on (potentially) biomedical news articles allows the quantity of biomedically valid information (as extracted by biomedical relation extraction) to be included in the list of explored features. Aside from forming part of a systematic correlation exploration, the features – ranging from the semantic relations through readability measures to the article’s digital content – are used within a number of machine learning classifier and regression algorithms. Unsurprisingly, the results support that for more complex articles (as determined by a readability measure) more sophisticated syntactic structure may be expected. A weak correlation is found with information within an article suggesting that other factors, such as numbers of videos, have a notable impact on the popularity of a news article. The best popularity prediction performance is obtained using a random forest machine learning algorithm, and the feature describing the quantity of biomedical information is in the top 3 most important features in almost a third of the experiments performed. Additionally, this feature is found to be more valuable than the widely used named entity recognition.


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