gene set enrichment analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yi Chen ◽  
Didi Chen ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Yajing Xu ◽  
Xiaowei Huang ◽  
...  

BackgroundCancer immunotherapy has produced significant positive clinical effects in a variety of tumor types. However, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is widely considered to be a “cold” cancer with poor immunogenicity. Our aim is to determine the detailed immune features of PDAC to seek new treatment strategies.MethodsThe immune cell abundance of PDAC patients was evaluated with the single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) using 119 immune gene signatures. Based on these data, patients were classified into different immune subtypes (ISs) according to immune gene signatures. We analyzed their response patterns to immunotherapy in the datasets, then established an immune index to reflect the different degrees of immune infiltration through linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Finally, potential prognostic markers associated with the immune index were identified based on weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) that was functionally validated in vitro.ResultsThree ISs were identified in PDAC, of which IS3 had the best prognosis across all three cohorts. The different expressions of immune profiles among the three ISs indicated a distinct responsiveness to immunotherapies in PDAC subtypes. By calculating the immune index, we found that the IS3 represented higher immune infiltration, while IS1 represented lower immune infiltration. Among the investigated signatures, we identified ZNF185, FANCG, and CSTF2 as risk factors associated with immune index that could potentially facilitate diagnosis and could be therapeutic target markers in PDAC patients.ConclusionsOur findings identified immunologic subtypes of PDAC with distinct prognostic implications, which allowed us to establish an immune index to represent the immune infiltration in each subtype. These results show the importance of continuing investigation of immunotherapy and will allow clinical workers to personalized treatment more effectively in PDAC patients.


Author(s):  
Rongrong Ding ◽  
Zhanwei Zhuang ◽  
Yibin Qiu ◽  
Donglin Ruan ◽  
Jie Wu ◽  
...  

Abstract Backfat thickness (BFT) is complex and economically important traits in the pig industry, since it reflects fat deposition and can be used to measure the carcass lean meat percentage in pigs. In this study, all 6,550 pigs were genotyped using the Geneseek Porcine 50K SNP Chip to identify SNPs related to BFT and to search for candidate genes through genome-wide association analysis in two Duroc populations. In total, 80 SNPs, including 39 significant and 41 suggestive SNPs, and 6 QTLs were identified significantly associated with the BFT. In addition, 9 candidate genes, including a proven major gene MC4R, 3 important candidate genes (RYR1, HMGA1 and NUDT3) which were previously described as related to BFT, and 5 novel candidate genes (SIRT2, NKAIN2, AMH, SORCS1 and SORCS3) were found based on their potential functional roles in BFT. The functions of candidate genes and gene set enrichment analysis indicate that most important pathways are related to energy homeostasis and adipogenesis. Finally, our data suggests that most of the candidate genes can be directly used for genetic improvement through molecular markers, except that the MC4R gene has an antagonistic effect on growth rate and carcass lean meat percentage in breeding. Our results will advance our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of BFT traits, and laid the foundation for additional genetic studies to increase carcass lean meat percentage of pig through marker-assisted selection and/or genomic selection.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ke-Yun Zhu ◽  
Yao Tian ◽  
Ying-Xi Li ◽  
Qing-Xiang Meng ◽  
Jie Ge ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Krüppel‐like factors (KLFs) are zinc finger proteins which participate in transcriptional gene regulation. Although increasing evidence indicate that KLFs are involved in carcinogenesis and progression, its clinical significance and biological function in breast cancer are still limited. Methods We investigated all the expression of KLFs (KLF1-18) at transcriptional levels by using Oncomine and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA). The mRNA and protein expression levels of KLFs were also determined by using RT-qPCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. CBioPortal, GeneMANIA and STRING were used to comprehensive analysis of the molecular characteristics of KLFs. The clinical value of prognostic prediction based on the expression of KLFs was determined by using the KM plotter. The relevant molecular pathways of KLFs were further analyzed by using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. Finally, we investigated the effect of KLF2 and KLF15 on biological behavior of breast cancer cells in vitro. Results The expression of KLF2/4/6/8/9/11/15 was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer. The patients with high KLF2, KLF4 or KLF15 expression had a better outcome, while patients with high KLF8 or KLF11 had a poor prognosis. Furthermore, our results showed that KLF2 or KLF15 can be used as a prognostic factor independent on the other KLFs in patients with breast cancer. Overexpression of KLF2 or KLF15 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and blocked cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, resulting in cell apoptosis. Conclusions KLF2 and KLF15 function as tumor suppressors in breast cancer and are potential biomarkers for prognostic prediction in patients with breast cancer.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Author(s):  
Yongjie Zhou ◽  
Liangwen Wang ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Jingqin Ma ◽  
Zihan Zhang ◽  
...  

Purpose. The long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play the important role in tumor occurrence and progression, and the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the critical process for tumor migration. However, the role of EMT-related lncRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been elucidated. Methods. In this study, we selected the EMT-related lncRNAs in HCC by using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). Two prognostic models of the overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were constructed and validated through Cox regression model, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The unsupervised clustering analysis was utilized to investigate the association between EMT-lncRNAs with tumor immune microenvironment. ESTIMATE algorithm and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) were used to estimate tumor microenvironment and associated KEGG pathways. Results. Two EMT-related lncRNA prognostic models of OS and RFS were constructed. Kaplan-Meier curves showed the dismal prognosis of OS and RFS in the group with high-risk score. The ROC curves and AUC values in two prognostic models indicated the discriminative value in the training set and validation set. Patients with HCC were clustered into two subgroups according the unsupervised clustering analysis. Lnc-CCNY-1 was selected as the key lncRNA. GSVA analysis showed that lnc-CCNY-1 was negatively associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway and positively correlated with CELL cycle pathway. Conclusion. Two EMT-related lncRNA prognostic models of OS and RFS were constructed to discriminate patients and predict prognosis of HCC. EMT-related lncRNAs may play a role on prognosis of HCC by influencing the immune microenvironment. Lnc-CCNY-1 was selected as the key EMT-related lncRNA for further exploration.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Xiujin Chen ◽  
Nan Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Zheng ◽  
Zhichao Tong ◽  
Tuanmin Yang ◽  
...  

Purpose. Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most primary bone malignant tumor in adolescents. Although the treatment of OS has made great progress, patients’ prognosis remains poor due to tumor invasion and metastasis. Materials and Methods. We downloaded the expression profile GSE12865 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. We screened differential expressed genes (DEGs) by making use of the R limma software package. Based on Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we performed the function and pathway enrichment analyses. Then, we constructed a Protein-Protein Interaction network and screened hub genes through the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. Result. By analyzing the gene expression profile GSE12865, we obtained 703 OS-related DEGs, which contained 166 genes upregulated and 537 genes downregulated. The DEGs were primarily abundant in ribosome, cell adhesion molecules, ubiquitin-ubiquitin ligase activity, and p53 signaling pathway. The hub genes of OS were KDR, CDH5, CD34, CDC42, RBX1, POLR2C, PPP2CA, and RPS2 through PPI network analysis. Finally, GSEA analysis showed that cell adhesion molecules, chemokine signal pathway, transendothelial migration, and focal adhesion were associated with OS. Conclusion. In this study, through analyzing microarray technology and bioinformatics analysis, the hub genes and pathways about OS are identified, and the new molecular mechanism of OS is clarified.


Healthcare ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 155
Author(s):  
Joaquim Carreras ◽  
Naoya Nakamura ◽  
Rifat Hamoudi

Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a subtype of mature B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by a poor prognosis. First, we analyzed a series of 123 cases (GSE93291). An algorithm using multilayer perceptron artificial neural network, radial basis function, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and conventional statistics, correlated 20,862 genes with 28 MCL prognostic genes for dimensionality reduction, to predict the patients’ overall survival and highlight new markers. As a result, 58 genes predicted survival with high accuracy (area under the curve = 0.9). Further reduction identified 10 genes: KIF18A, YBX3, PEMT, GCNA, and POGLUT3 that associated with a poor survival; and SELENOP, AMOTL2, IGFBP7, KCTD12, and ADGRG2 with a favorable survival. Correlation with the proliferation index (Ki67) was also made. Interestingly, these genes, which were related to cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism, also predicted the survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (GSE10846, n = 414), and a pan-cancer series of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, n = 7289), which included the most relevant cancers (lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, stomach, liver, etcetera). Secondly, survival was predicted using 10 oncology panels (transcriptome, cancer progression and pathways, metabolic pathways, immuno-oncology, and host response), and TYMS was highlighted. Finally, using machine learning, C5 tree and Bayesian network had the highest accuracy for prediction and correlation with the LLMPP MCL35 proliferation assay and RGS1 was made. In conclusion, artificial intelligence analysis predicted the overall survival of MCL with high accuracy, and highlighted genes that predicted the survival of a large pan-cancer series.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sofia Diaz-Lundahl ◽  
Arvind Y.M. Sundaram ◽  
Per Gillund ◽  
Gregor Duncan Gilfillan ◽  
Ingrid Olsaker ◽  
...  

During the last decade, paternal effects on embryo development have been found to have greater importance than previously believed. In domestic cattle, embryo mortality is an issue of concern, causing huge economical losses for the dairy cattle industry. In attempts to reveal the paternal influence on embryo death, recent approaches have used transcriptome profiling of the embryo to find genes and pathways affected by different phenotypes in the bull. For practical and economic reasons, most such studies have used in vitro produced embryos. The aim of the present study was to investigate the differences in the global transcriptome of in vivo produced embryos, derived from sires with either high or low field fertility measured as the non-return rate (NRR) on day 56 after first AI of the inseminated cows. Superovulated heifers (n = 14) in the age span of 12–15 months were artificially inseminated with semen from either high fertility (n = 6) or low fertility (n = 6) bulls. On day seven after insemination, embryos were retrieved through uterine flushing. Embryos with first grade quality and IETS stage 5 (early blastocyst), 6 (blastocyst) or 7 (expanded blastocyst) were selected for further processing. In total, RNA extracted from 24 embryos was sequenced using Illumina sequencing, followed by differential expression analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. We found 62 genes differentially expressed between the two groups (adj.p-value<0.05), of which several genes and their linked pathways could explain the different developmental capacity. Transcripts highly expressed in the embryos from low fertility bulls were related to sterol metabolism and terpenoid backbone synthesis, while transcripts highly expressed in the high fertility embryos were linked to anti-apoptosis and the regulation of cytokine signaling. The leukocyte transendothelial migration and insulin signaling pathways were associated with enrichments in both groups. We also found some highly expressed transcripts in both groups which can be considered as new candidates in the regulation of embryo development. The present study is an important step in defining the paternal influence in embryonic development. Our results suggest that the sire’s genetic contribution affects several important processes linked to pre-and peri implantation regulation in the developing embryo.


Author(s):  
Sung-Hyun Park ◽  
Yuting Lu ◽  
Yongzhao Shao ◽  
Colette Prophete ◽  
Lori Horton ◽  
...  

First responders (FR) exposed to the World Trade Center (WTC) Ground Zero air over the first week after the 9/11 disaster have an increased heart disease incidence compared to unexposed FR and the general population. To test if WTC dusts were causative agents, rats were exposed to WTC dusts (under isoflurane [ISO] anesthesia) 2 h/day on 2 consecutive days; controls received air/ISO or air only. Hearts were collected 1, 30, 240, and 360 d post-exposure, left ventricle total RNA was extracted, and transcription profiles were obtained. The data showed that differentially expressed genes (DEG) for WTC vs. ISO rats did not reach any significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 at days 1, 30, and 240, indicating that the dusts did not impart effects beyond any from ISO. However, at day 360, 14 DEG with a low FDR were identified, reflecting potential long-term effects from WTC dust alone, and the majority of these DEG have been implicated as having an impact on heart functions. Furthermore, the functional gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) data at day 360 showed that WTC dust could potentially impact the myocardial energy metabolism via PPAR signaling and heart valve development. This is the first study showing that WTC dust could significantly affect some genes that are associated with the heart/CV system, in the long term. Even > 20 years after the 9/11 disaster, this has potentially important implications for those FR exposed repeatedly at Ground Zero over the first week after the buildings collapsed.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Rui Fu ◽  
Xinxia Luo ◽  
Yan Ding ◽  
Shiwen Guo

<b><i>Objective:</i></b> Methyltransferase-like 7B (METTL7B) is a member of methyltransferase-like family. Little is known about the exact role of METTL7B in cancer. This study aims to investigate the role of METTL7B in gliomas. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The expression of METTL7B in glioma and adjacent normal tissues were examined by using TCGA, Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database, and clinical tissues. <b><i>Results:</i></b> The results showed that METTL7B was highly expressed in glioma. Patients with high levels of METTL7B usually had poor survival in glioma, especially in low-grade glioma (LGG). Data from CGGA showed that METTL7B was an independent risk factor of glioma and can be used to evaluate the survival time of glioma patients. Hypomethylation in the METTL7B CpG islands was lower in LGG, and all the hypomethylated METTL7B islands were correlated with poor LGG survival. Furthermore, METTL7B levels were correlated with high numbers of tumor infiltrated immune cells in glioma, especially in LGG. ). Gene Set Enrichment Analysis found METTL7B was correlated with leukocyte proliferation, T-cell proliferation, peptidase activity, lymphocyte activation, etc. TCGA and CGGA database analysis showed that there were 1,546 and 1,117 genes that had a synergistic effect with METTL7B in glioma, respectively, and there were 372 genes overlapped between the 2 groups, including PD-L1. Data from clinical tissues also showed PD-L1 was highly expressed in glioma tissues and was positively correlated with METTL7B. <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Our study suggested that METTL7B was a potential prognostic biomarker for glioma and other cancers, and it may act as an oncogenic driver and may be a potential therapeutic target in human cancer, especially in LGG.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lan-Xin Mu ◽  
You-Cheng Shao ◽  
Lei Wei ◽  
Fang-Fang Chen ◽  
Jing-Wei Zhang

Purpose: This study aims to reveal the relationship between RNA N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulators and tumor immune microenvironment (TME) in breast cancer, and to establish a risk model for predicting the occurrence and development of tumors.Patients and methods: In the present study, we respectively downloaded the transcriptome dataset of breast cancer from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to analyze the mutation characteristics of m6A regulators and their expression profile in different clinicopathological groups. Then we used the weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA), the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), and cox regression to construct a risk prediction model based on m6A-associated hub genes. In addition, Immune infiltration analysis and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to evaluate the immune cell context and the enriched gene sets among the subgroups.Results: Compared with adjacent normal tissue, differentially expressed 24 m6A regulators were identified in breast cancer. According to the expression features of m6A regulators above, we established two subgroups of breast cancer, which were also surprisingly distinguished by the feature of the immune microenvironment. The Model based on modification patterns of m6A regulators could predict the patient’s T stage and evaluate their prognosis. Besides, the low m6aRiskscore group presents an immune-activated phenotype as well as a lower tumor mutation load, and its 5-years survival rate was 90.5%, while that of the high m6ariskscore group was only 74.1%. Finally, the cohort confirmed that age (p &lt; 0.001) and m6aRiskscore (p &lt; 0.001) are both risk factors for breast cancer in the multivariate regression.Conclusion: The m6A regulators play an important role in the regulation of breast tumor immune microenvironment and is helpful to provide guidance for clinical immunotherapy.


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