Smart Contracts
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Author(s):  
Bharat S. Rawal ◽  
Poongodi M. ◽  
Gunasekaran Manogaran ◽  
Mounir Hamdi

Block chain provides an innovative solution to information storage, transaction execution, security, and trust building in an open environment. The block chain is technological progress for cyber security and cryptography, with efficiency-related cases varying in smart grids, smart contracts, over the IoT, etc. The movement to exchange data on a server has massively increased with the introduction of the Internet of Things. Hence, in this research, Splitting of proxy re-encryption method (Split-PRE) has been suggested based on the IoT to improve security and privacy in a private block chain. This study proposes a block chain-based proxy re-encryption program to resolve both the trust and scalability problems and to simplify the transactions. After encryption, the system saves the Internet of Things data in a distributed cloud. The framework offers dynamic, smart contracts between the sensor and the device user without the intervention of a trustworthy third party to exchange the captured IoT data. It uses an efficient proxy re-encryption system, which provides the owner and the person existing in the smart contract to see the data. The experimental outcomes show that the proposed approach enhances the efficiency, security, privacy, and feasibility of the system when compared to other existing methods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Author(s):  
Jiachi Chen ◽  
Xin Xia ◽  
David Lo ◽  
John Grundy

The selfdestruct function is provided by Ethereum smart contracts to destroy a contract on the blockchain system. However, it is a double-edged sword for developers. On the one hand, using the selfdestruct function enables developers to remove smart contracts ( SCs ) from Ethereum and transfers Ethers when emergency situations happen, e.g., being attacked. On the other hand, this function can increase the complexity for the development and open an attack vector for attackers. To better understand the reasons why SC developers include or exclude the selfdestruct function in their contracts, we conducted an online survey to collect feedback from them and summarize the key reasons. Their feedback shows that 66.67% of the developers will deploy an updated contract to the Ethereum after destructing the old contract. According to this information, we propose a method to find the self-destructed contracts (also called predecessor contracts) and their updated version (successor contracts) by computing the code similarity. By analyzing the difference between the predecessor contracts and their successor contracts, we found five reasons that led to the death of the contracts; two of them (i.e., Unmatched ERC20 Token and Limits of Permission ) might affect the life span of contracts. We developed a tool named LifeScope to detect these problems. LifeScope reports 0 false positives or negatives in detecting Unmatched ERC20 Token . In terms of Limits of Permission , LifeScope achieves 77.89% of F-measure and 0.8673 of AUC in average. According to the feedback of developers who exclude selfdestruct functions, we propose suggestions to help developers use selfdestruct functions in Ethereum smart contracts better.


2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-40
Author(s):  
Jinlei Sun ◽  
Song Huang ◽  
Changyou Zheng ◽  
Tingyong Wang ◽  
Cheng Zong ◽  
...  

Author(s):  
Israa Al_Barazanchi ◽  
Aparna Murthy ◽  
Ahmad AbdulQadir Al Rababah ◽  
Ghadeer Khader ◽  
Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed ◽  
...  

Blockchain innovation has picked up expanding consideration from investigating and industry over the later a long time. It permits actualizing in its environment the smart-contracts innovation which is utilized to robotize and execute deals between clients. Blockchain is proposed nowadays as the unused specialized foundation for a few sorts of IT applications. Blockchain would aid avoid the duplication of information because it right now does with Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Since of the numerous hundreds of thousands of servers putting away the Bitcoin record, it’s impossible to assault and alter. An aggressor would need to change the record of 51 percent of all the servers, at the precise same time. The budgetary fetched of such an assault would distantly exceed the potential picks up. The same cannot be said for our private data that lives on single servers possessed by Google and Amazon. In this paper, we outline major Blockchain technology that based as solutions for IOT security. We survey and categorize prevalent security issues with respect to IoT data privacy, in expansion to conventions utilized for organizing, communication, and administration. We diagram security necessities for IoT together with the existing scenarios for using blockchain in IoT applications.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 539
Author(s):  
Valeri Mladenov ◽  
Vesselin Chobanov ◽  
George Calin Seritan ◽  
Radu Florin Porumb ◽  
Bogdan-Adrian Enache ◽  
...  

The paper’s main objective is to demonstrate the trading and flexibility of services amongst TSOs, DSOs, and Prosumers in a transparent, secure, and cost-effective manner using Blockchain-based TSO-DSO flexibility marketplace (EFLEX). The aim is to look for ways to help DSOs/TSOs be more flexible and more directly engaged in managing energy flows on the network. EFLEX will streamline the needs of both TSO and DSO on the same platform. Based on the paper’s proposed services, the pilot service demonstration will be carried out in Bulgaria and Romania, and the main focus will be on congestion management, TSO-DSO Coordination, and Marketplace. The proposed objective is achieved by using Blockchain-based smart contracts and distributed ledger technology.


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