Life Span
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Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 373 (6554) ◽  
pp. eabc8479
M. Grunewald ◽  
S. Kumar ◽  
H. Sharife ◽  
E. Volinsky ◽  
A. Gileles-Hillel ◽  

Aging is an established risk factor for vascular diseases, but vascular aging itself may contribute to the progressive deterioration of organ function. Here, we show in aged mice that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling insufficiency, which is caused by increased production of decoy receptors, may drive physiological aging across multiple organ systems. Increasing VEGF signaling prevented age-associated capillary loss, improved organ perfusion and function, and extended life span. Healthier aging was evidenced by favorable metabolism and body composition and amelioration of aging-associated pathologies including hepatic steatosis, sarcopenia, osteoporosis, “inflammaging” (age-related multiorgan chronic inflammation), and increased tumor burden. These results indicate that VEGF signaling insufficiency affects organ aging in mice and suggest that modulating this pathway may result in increased mammalian life span and improved overall health.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Ana C.P. Petronilio ◽  
Thiago B. Batista ◽  
Edvaldo A. Amaral da Silva

Abstract Tomato seeds subjected to osmo-priming show fast and more uniform germination. However, osmo-priming reduces seed longevity, which is a complex seed physiological attribute influenced by several mechanisms, including response to stress. Thus, to have new insights as to why osmo-primed tomato seeds show a short life span, we performed a transcript analysis during their priming. For that, we performed gene expression studies of the heat-shock protein family genes that were previously reported to be associated with the enhancement of longevity in primed tomato seeds. Physiological assays of germination, vigour and longevity tests were used to support the data. The results show that the short life span of osmo-primed tomato seeds is related to the decrease in the expression of transcripts associated with response to stress during the priming treatment. These results are important because they add information regarding which seed longevity mechanisms are impacted by the priming treatment. In parallel, it will allow the use of these genes as markers to monitor longevity in osmo-primed tomato seeds.

Science ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 373 (6554) ◽  
pp. 529.11-531
Beverly A. Purnell

2022 ◽  
Vol 82 ◽  
J. U. Rehman ◽  
S. Alam ◽  
S. Khalil ◽  
M. Hussain ◽  
M. Iqbal ◽  

Abstract Cranes are the large and attractive Creatures of nature with long necks, legs, and life-span. Adults of both sexes are the same with similar color patterns. Demoiselle cranes spend most of their lifespan on dry grasses. They are also found around the stream, rivers, shallow lakes, natural wetlands, and depressions. To evaluate the current status of habitat use and major threats a study was conducted in tehsil Domel district Bannu. Line transect method and water quality tests (temperature, PH, contamination of E-coli bacteria) were used. To determine the major threats questionnaire method was used. The whole data was analyzed by using SPSS 21 version. Based on the distribution four study sites were selected and four water samples from each study site were taken. Most sites were moderate to highly degraded except Kashoo and kurram river mixing point which was low degraded with livestock grazing and human activities. Water quality tests showed PH ranges from 7-9, temperature 6.5-8.5, and contamination of E-coli in all samples. The social survey revealed that hunting, habitat degradation, and pollution as major threats. Effective long-term conservation and management in the study area are needed to focus on the protection of disturbance-free habitat.

Victor Vasilyevich Dyakin ◽  
Vladimir Nikolaevich Uversky

The universal chirality is the commonly accepted view of nature. Biological chirality is the distinct part of the more general phenomena. Following this view, all living organisms are characterized by the non-equilibrium state of their molecular constituents. From the thermodynamic perspective, the non-equilibrium state of biomolecular ensemble holds inevitable consequences being the substrate of spontaneous reactions directed to equilibrium (not associated with life) state. At the protein level, spontaneous biological reactions represent the natural part of proteins' post-translational modifications (PTMs). The essential contribution to the origin and maintenance of the non-equilibrium state belongs to prevalent bio-molecular chirality. Correspondently, spontaneous PTMs such as racemization and glycation, working against life-supporting prevalent chirality, are known as the significant determinants of protein misfolding, dysfunctions, and aggregation. Accumulation of aberrant protein during life-span allows consideration of time-dependent spontaneous racemization and glycation as protein aging. Spontaneous PTMs of proteins is occurring in the interaction with other forms of enzymatic and non-enzymatic PTMs. In this review, we are considering the contribution of spontaneous racemization and non-enzymatic glycosylation to protein aging.

2021 ◽  
pp. 016502542110297
Luc Goossens ◽  
Christina Victor ◽  
Pamela Qualter

We provide an overview of the topics included in the special section of the International Journal of Behavioral Development on Loneliness Across the Life Span. We highlight the use of a life span approach to understanding loneliness and the different methodological approaches adopted by researchers. This special issue contributes toward the development of a holistic research agenda addressing loneliness across the life course and away from a focus solely upon specific age groups such as adolescents, young adults, or older adults who have been the focus of most loneliness research until comparatively recently.

Immuno ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (3) ◽  
pp. 231-239
Alexander I. Mosa

Discrepancies in lifespan and healthy-life span are predisposing populations to an increasing burden of age-related disease. Accumulating evidence implicates aging of the immune system, termed immunosenescence, in the pathogenesis of multiple age-related diseases. Moreover, immune dysregulation in the elderly increases vulnerability to infection and dampens pathogen-specific immune responses following vaccination. The health challenges manifesting from these age related deficits have been dramatically exemplified by the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Approaches to either attenuate or reverse functional markers of immunosenescence are therefore urgently needed. Recent evidence suggests systemic immunomodulation via non-specific vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines may be a promising avenue to at least reduce aged population vulnerability to viral infection. This short review describes current understanding of immunosenescence, the historical and mechanistic basis of vaccine-mediated immunomodulation, and the outstanding questions and challenges required for broad adoption.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (8) ◽  
pp. 1270
Tomas Liubertas ◽  
Jonas Poderys ◽  
Zigmantaite Vilma ◽  
Sandrija Capkauskiene ◽  
Pranas Viskelis

The recently defined and yet rather new topic of healthy aging is attracting more attention worldwide. As the world population is getting older, it is rapidly becoming essential to develop and maintain functional abilities at older age and develop mechanisms to protect the senior population from chronic diseases. One of the most effective components, as well as processes associated with aging, is the recently discovered and Nobel prize-awarded—nitric oxide (NO) (as a signaling molecule), which, followed by later discoveries, showed to have a positive metabolic, immunological, and anti-inflammatory effect. Nitrates are one of the most debated topics of the last decade in the scientific community due to their pathways involved in the production of nitric oxide. Thus, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of different potassium nitrate concentrate supplementation on Drosophila melanogaster longevity imitating a human carbohydrate-based diet with relationship to possible cause of oxidative stress. Influence of 0.5–3% potassium nitrate medium on the lifespan and motor function in different groups consisting of 100 fruit fly females in each was analyzed. In this assay, female fly species supplemented with potassium nitrate diet showed life span increase by 18.6% and 5.1% with 1% and 2% KNO3, respectively, with a positive impact on locomotor function. In conclusion, we found that low concentration of potassium nitrate medium increased lifespan and locomotor function in Drosophila melanogaster.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Yurie Ogura ◽  
Ryoji Kaneko ◽  
Kota Ujibe ◽  
Yuma Wakamatsu ◽  
Hiromi Hirata

AbstractThe klotho gene encodes a transmembrane protein αKlotho that interacts with a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor in renal tubular epithelial cells and functions as a co-receptor for FGF23, which is an osteocytes-derived hormone. This bone-to-kidney signal promotes urinary phosphate excretion. Interestingly, αKlotho knockout mice show an accelerated aging and a shortened life span. Similarly, C. elegans lacking the αklotho homologue showed a short life span. However, the physiological basis of aging-related function of αklotho remain unclear. The αklotho-deficient vertebrate animals other than mice have been awaited as an alternative model of premature aging. We here employed zebrafish in our study and revealed that αklotho mutant zebrafish appeared to be normal at 3 months postfertilization (mpf) but eventually underwent premature death by 9 mpf, while normal zebrafish is known to survive for 42 months. We also assessed the motor ability of zebrafish in a forced swimming assay and found that αklotho mutant zebrafish displayed reduced swimming performance before their survival declined. A recent study also reported a similar finding that αklotho-deficient zebrafish exhibited a short life span and reduced spontaneous movements. Taken together, these results suggest that αKlotho mutant zebrafish show premature aging and are useful to investigate aging in vertebrates.

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