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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (21) ◽  
pp. 11471
Roberto Rodríguez-Ortiz ◽  
Ataúlfo Matínez-Torres

Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that affects 50 million people worldwide. The most common form of epilepsy is idiopathic, where most of the genetic defects of this type of epilepsy occur in ion channels. Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization, and are mainly expressed in the heart and central and peripheral nervous systems. In humans, four HCN genes have been described, and emergent clinical data shows that dysfunctional HCN channels are involved in epilepsy. Danio rerio has become a versatile organism to model a wide variety of diseases. In this work, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate hcn2b mutants in zebrafish, and characterized them molecularly and behaviorally. We obtained an hcn2b mutant allele with an 89 bp deletion that produced a premature stop codon. The mutant exhibited a high mortality rate in its life span, probably due to its sudden death. We did not detect heart malformations or important heart rate alterations. Absence seizures and moderate seizures were observed in response to light. These seizures rarely caused instant death. The results show that mutations in the Hcn2b channel are involved in epilepsy and provide evidence of the advantages of zebrafish to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of epilepsy.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089448652110511
Barbara Cosson ◽  
Michael Gilding

The family business literature barely addresses wives’ influence in family business succession. Where it does so, the result is often tokenistic, stereotypical, and imprecise. Drawing on 34 in-depth interviews, this article makes three contributions. First, it identifies wives’ critical influence in family business succession through socialization across the life span of the family business; specifically, through normative, interactive, and experiential socialization. Second, it demonstrates the diverse dynamics and impact of wives’ influence on family business continuity. Third, it highlights the particular significance of experiential socialization, whereby changing expectations of marriage and family life have amplified wives’ influence in succession outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Judith E. Appel ◽  
Els J. van Wijngaarden

In the Netherlands and in Belgium, a political debate emerged regarding the possibility of euthanasia and assisted suicide (EAS) for older adults who experience their lives as completed and no longer worth living, despite being relatively healthy. This mini-review aimed to (1) present an overview of the terms used to denote this phenomenon as well as their definitions and to (2) explore how the underlying experiences are interpreted by the study authors. A systematic search was performed in Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL, yielding 35 articles meeting the selection criteria. We selected empirical, English-language articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Participants had to have a first-person experience of the phenomenon or be assessed for it, or have a third-person experience of the phenomenon. Results show that the terms tiredness of life (ToL) and weariness of life (WoL) were used most frequently, also in the broader literature on suicidal expressions across the life span. Many studies mentioned operational definitions or synonyms rather than theoretical definitions. Moreover, inside the EAS debate, the term ToL was more common, its definition incorporated death wishes, and it was regularly framed existentially. Outside of this debate, the phenomenon was generally considered as a part of suicidal ideation distinct from death wishes, and its experience was often associated with underlying psychopathology. We discuss the need to establish consensus definitions and conclude that only a multidimensional view may be suitable to capture the complex nature of the phenomenon.

2021 ◽  
Vol 35 (11) ◽  
Richard Anderson ◽  
Anchal Agarwal ◽  
Arnab Ghosh ◽  
Bo‐Jhih Guan ◽  
Jackson Casteel ◽  

2021 ◽  
Dipankar Khanna

Indexing of data for Happiness, Sadness, Feeling Hurt and Heroism (Acting Creatively to create authentic happiness for others and oneself by practicing Moral and Ethical codes (Yama and Niyama).

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 1104
Frederick Robert Carrick ◽  
Sergio F. Azzolino ◽  
Melissa Hunfalvay ◽  
Guido Pagnacco ◽  
Elena Oggero ◽  

The size of our pupils changes continuously in response to variations in ambient light levels, a process known as the pupillary light reflex (PLR). The PLR is not a simple reflex as its function is modulated by cognitive brain function and any long-term changes in brain function secondary to injury should cause a change in the parameters of the PLR. We performed a retrospective clinical review of the PLR of our patients using the BrightLamp Reflex iPhone app. The PLR variables of latency, maximum pupil diameter (MaxPD), minimum pupil diameter (MinPD), maximum constriction velocity (MCV), and the 75% recovery time (75% PRT) were associated with significant differences between subjects who had suffered a concussion and those that had not. There were also significant differences in PLR metrics over the life span and between genders and those subjects with and without symptoms. The differences in PLR metrics are modulated not only by concussion history but also by gender and whether or not the person has symptoms associated with a head injury. A concussive injury to the brain is associated with changes in the PLR that persist over the life span, representing biomarkers that might be used in clinical diagnosis, treatment, and decision making.

Polar Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Agnieszka Kujawa ◽  
Magdalena Łącka ◽  
Natalia Szymańska ◽  
Joanna Pawłowska ◽  
Maciej M. Telesiński ◽  

AbstractBenthic foraminifera are one of the most widely and abundantly distributed organisms in the fjords of Svalbard and Norway. Due to their short life span and quick reactivity to environmental changes they can be used as indicators of the “atlantification” process. Here, we compare the benthic foraminifera assemblages along the latitudinal gradient, from the fjords of northern Svalbard to southern Norway to assess whether the “atlantification” process may homogenise the foraminiferal assemblages in terms of their abundance and species composition. Furthermore, the previously published data on benthic foraminiferal faunas was updated to identify changes in distribution that have occurred over the last few decades. For this purpose, fjord mouths in western and northern Svalbard (Isfjorden, Wijdefjorden and Rijpfjorden) and northern and southern Norway (Balsfjorden, Raunefjorden and Hjeltefjorden) were resampled. The analysis revealed similarities between the Svalbard and Norwegian foraminiferal assemblages of up to 30%; however, there were essential differences in terms of abundance and biodiversity. These results suggest that Svalbard fjords will remain distinct in the future, even under conditions of further warming or “atlantification”. Svalbard fjords may be dominated by Atlantic Water- preferring species, whereas, in Norwegian fjords, pressure from human activity will probably be the main driver of environmental changes, leading to changes in the foraminiferal assemblages with the increasing dominance of opportunistic, hypoxia-tolerant species.

Sushma ◽  
L.P. Yadava

Progress of a family depends on health of women in the family because she is the only creature who has amazing power of creation. A woman suffers from various menstrual disorders (Artavadushti) in her life span. Ashoka (Saraca indica or Saraca asoca (Roxb.), belonging to the family Caesalpinioideae, is one of the most important herb extensively used in bleeding disorders in women throughout her active reproductive period. Ashoka means no grief in Sanskrit language. So it is also called as “friend of women” because it has reputation of its bark for retaining a woman healthy and youthful. Chemically, it contains glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. Its actions are spasmogenic, uterotonic, oxytocic, antibacterial, antit-umour, anti-implantations, anti-progestational and anti-estrogenic to fight against menorrhagia, leucorrhoea and anticancer. In view of these properties and also its Rasa, Guna, Veerya, Vipaka it can be used in the treatment of bleeding gynaecological diseases.

Sangeeta Gupta ◽  
Sarita Yadav ◽  
Arun Gupta

Today is the world of competition and everybody is running day and night to achieve the best in their terms. The mankind is set into a new dimension of time where ceaseless activity throughout is making everybody restless. Overall result is the never ending physical and mental stress coming out in the form of variety of health disorders which can be called as stress related disorders like hypertension, coronary artery disease, arthritis, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis and behavioral disorders like anxiety and depression. Ayurveda mentions the stress as Sahas and its impacts on the body as aggravation of Vata Dosha and Ojokshaya leading to lowered immunity and resulting number of diseases due to that, it also relates the stress to the degeneration in the body tissues causing early aging and reduced life span. Although Acharya Caraka states that in order to stay healthy and to save the life one should always avoid over-exerting himself, however, in today’s world, stress is an inevitable part of life and so the stress induced diseases. Therefore, instead of looking for the stress avoidance strategy it is important to work on preventing the effects of stress on the body and increasing the coping capacity of the body by life style modifications, dietary interventions and other means. Ayurveda relate the Sahas to Vata aggravation in the body and provides the solution to the problem in the form of Vata balancing diet and activity regimen, Vasti therapy, rejuvenation or Rasayana therapy and application of Yoga and Pranayama.

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