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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-25
Jing Li ◽  
Weifa Liang ◽  
Zichuan Xu ◽  
Xiaohua Jia ◽  
Wanlei Zhou

We are embracing an era of Internet of Things (IoT). The latency brought by unstable wireless networks caused by limited resources of IoT devices seriously impacts the quality of services of users, particularly the service delay they experienced. Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) technology provides promising solutions to delay-sensitive IoT applications, where cloudlets (edge servers) are co-located with wireless access points in the proximity of IoT devices. The service response latency for IoT applications can be significantly shortened due to that their data processing can be performed in a local MEC network. Meanwhile, most IoT applications usually impose Service Function Chain (SFC) enforcement on their data transmission, where each data packet from its source gateway of an IoT device to the destination (a cloudlet) of the IoT application must pass through each Virtual Network Function (VNF) in the SFC in an MEC network. However, little attention has been paid on such a service provisioning of multi-source IoT applications in an MEC network with SFC enforcement. In this article, we study service provisioning in an MEC network for multi-source IoT applications with SFC requirements and aiming at minimizing the cost of such service provisioning, where each IoT application has multiple data streams from different sources to be uploaded to a location (cloudlet) in the MEC network for aggregation, processing, and storage purposes. To this end, we first formulate two novel optimization problems: the cost minimization problem of service provisioning for a single multi-source IoT application, and the service provisioning problem for a set of multi-source IoT applications, respectively, and show that both problems are NP-hard. Second, we propose a service provisioning framework in the MEC network for multi-source IoT applications that consists of uploading stream data from multiple sources of the IoT application to the MEC network, data stream aggregation and routing through the VNF instance placement and sharing, and workload balancing among cloudlets. Third, we devise an efficient algorithm for the cost minimization problem built upon the proposed service provisioning framework, and further extend the solution for the service provisioning problem of a set of multi-source IoT applications. We finally evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithms through experimental simulations. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms are promising.

This paper presents the design of 2*1 and 4*1 RFID reader microstrip array antenna at 2.4GHz for the Internet of things (IoT) networks which are Zigbee, Bluetooth and WIFI. The proposed antenna is composed of identical circular shapes radiating patches printed in FR4 substrate. The dielectric constant εr and substrate thickness h are 4.4 and 1.6mm, respectively. The 2*1 and 4*1 array antennas present a gain improvement of 27.3% and 61.9%, respectively. The single,2*1 and 4*1 array antennas were performed with CADFEKO.

2023 ◽  
Vol 55 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-39
Kinza Sarwar ◽  
Sira Yongchareon ◽  
Jian Yu ◽  
Saeed Ur Rehman

Despite the rapid growth and advancement in the Internet of Things (IoT ), there are critical challenges that need to be addressed before the full adoption of the IoT. Data privacy is one of the hurdles towards the adoption of IoT as there might be potential misuse of users’ data and their identity in IoT applications. Several researchers have proposed different approaches to reduce privacy risks. However, most of the existing solutions still suffer from various drawbacks, such as huge bandwidth utilization and network latency, heavyweight cryptosystems, and policies that are applied on sensor devices and in the cloud. To address these issues, fog computing has been introduced for IoT network edges providing low latency, computation, and storage services. In this survey, we comprehensively review and classify privacy requirements for an in-depth understanding of privacy implications in IoT applications. Based on the classification, we highlight ongoing research efforts and limitations of the existing privacy-preservation techniques and map the existing IoT schemes with Fog-enabled IoT schemes to elaborate on the benefits and improvements that Fog-enabled IoT can bring to preserve data privacy in IoT applications. Lastly, we enumerate key research challenges and point out future research directions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-30
Ajay Krishna ◽  
Michel Le Pallec ◽  
Radu Mateescu ◽  
Gwen Salaün

Consumer Internet of Things (IoT) applications are largely built through end-user programming in the form of event-action rules. Although end-user tools help simplify the building of IoT applications to a large extent, there are still challenges in developing expressive applications in a simple yet correct fashion. In this context, we propose a formal development framework based on the Web of Things specification. An application is defined using a composition language that allows users to compose the basic event-action rules to express complex scenarios. It is transformed into a formal specification that serves as the input for formal analysis, where the application is checked for functional and quantitative properties at design time using model checking techniques. Once the application is validated, it can be deployed and the rules are executed following the composition language semantics. We have implemented these proposals in a tool built on top of the Mozilla WebThings platform. The steps from design to deployment were validated on real-world applications.

Omaima Benkhadda ◽  
Mohamed Saih ◽  
kebir Chaji ◽  
Abdelati Reha

This paper presents the design of 2*1 and 4*1 RFID reader microstrip array antenna at 2.4GHz for the Internet of things (IoT) networks which are Zigbee, Bluetooth and WIFI. The proposed antenna is composed of identical circular shapes radiating patches printed in FR4 substrate. The dielectric constant εr and substrate thickness h are 4.4 and 1.6mm, respectively. The 2*1 and 4*1 array antennas present a gain improvement of 27.3% and 61.9%, respectively. The single,2*1 and 4*1 array antennas were performed with CADFEKO.

Israa Al_Barazanchi ◽  
Aparna Murthy ◽  
Ahmad AbdulQadir Al Rababah ◽  
Ghadeer Khader ◽  
Haider Rasheed Abdulshaheed ◽  

Blockchain innovation has picked up expanding consideration from investigating and industry over the later a long time. It permits actualizing in its environment the smart-contracts innovation which is utilized to robotize and execute deals between clients. Blockchain is proposed nowadays as the unused specialized foundation for a few sorts of IT applications. Blockchain would aid avoid the duplication of information because it right now does with Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. Since of the numerous hundreds of thousands of servers putting away the Bitcoin record, it’s impossible to assault and alter. An aggressor would need to change the record of 51 percent of all the servers, at the precise same time. The budgetary fetched of such an assault would distantly exceed the potential picks up. The same cannot be said for our private data that lives on single servers possessed by Google and Amazon. In this paper, we outline major Blockchain technology that based as solutions for IOT security. We survey and categorize prevalent security issues with respect to IoT data privacy, in expansion to conventions utilized for organizing, communication, and administration. We diagram security necessities for IoT together with the existing scenarios for using blockchain in IoT applications.

Network ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 36-52
Miguel Rosendo ◽  
Jorge Granjal

The constant evolution in communication infrastructures will enable new Internet of Things (IoT) applications, particularly in areas that, up to today, have been mostly enabled by closed or proprietary technologies. Such applications will be enabled by a myriad of wireless communication technologies designed for all types of IoT devices, among which are the Long-Range Wide-Area Network (LoRaWAN) or other Low-power and Wide-Area Networks (LPWAN) communication technologies. This applies to many critical environments, such as industrial control and healthcare, where wireless communications are yet to be broadly adopted. Two fundamental requirements to effectively support upcoming critical IoT applications are those of energy management and security. We may note that those are, in fact, contradictory goals. On the one hand, many IoT devices depend on the usage of batteries while, on the other hand, adequate security mechanisms need to be in place to protect devices and communications from threats against their stability and security. With thismotivation in mind, we propose a solution to address the management, in tandem, of security and energy in LoRaWAN IoT communication environments. We propose and evaluate an architecture in the context of which adaptation logic is used to manage security and energy dynamically, with the goal of guaranteeing appropriate security, while promoting the lifetime of constrained sensing devices. The proposed solution was implemented and experimentally evaluated and was observed to successfully manage security and energy. Security and energy are managed in line with the requirements of the application at hand, the characteristics of the constrained sensing devices employed and the detection, as well as the threat, of particular types of attacks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 900
Sabrina Oppl ◽  
Christian Stary

Connectivity is key to the latest technologies propagating into everyday life. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) and Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications enable users, machines, and technologically enriched objects (‘Things’) to sense, communicate, and interact with their environment. Albeit making human beings’ lives more comfortable, these systems collect huge quantities of data that may affect human privacy and their digital sovereignty. Engaging in control over individuals by digital means, the data and the artefacts that process privacy-relevant data can be addressed by Self-Determination Theory (SDT) and its established instruments. In this paper, we discuss how the theory and its methodological knowledge can be considered for user-centric privacy management. We set the stage for studying motivational factors to improve user engagement in identifying privacy needs and preserving privacy when utilizing or aiming to adapt CPS or IoT applications according to their privacy needs. SDT considers user autonomy, self-perceived competence, and social relatedness relevant for human engagement. Embodying these factors into a Design Science-based CPS development framework could help to motivate users to articulate privacy needs and adopt cyber-physical technologies for personal task accomplishment.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 567
Muhammad Husnain ◽  
Khizar Hayat ◽  
Enrico Cambiaso ◽  
Ubaid U. Fayyaz ◽  
Maurizio Mongelli ◽  

The advancement in the domain of IoT accelerated the development of new communication technologies such as the Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. Although MQTT servers/brokers are considered the main component of all MQTT-based IoT applications, their openness makes them vulnerable to potential cyber-attacks such as DoS, DDoS, or buffer overflow. As a result of this, an efficient intrusion detection system for MQTT-based applications is still a missing piece of the IoT security context. Unfortunately, existing IDSs do not provide IoT communication protocol support such as MQTT or CoAP to validate crafted or malformed packets for protecting the protocol implementation vulnerabilities of IoT devices. In this paper, we have designed and developed an MQTT parsing engine that can be integrated with network-based IDS as an initial layer for extensive checking against IoT protocol vulnerabilities and improper usage through a rigorous validation of packet fields during the packet-parsing stage. In addition, we evaluate the performance of the proposed solution across different reported vulnerabilities. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solution for detecting and preventing the exploitation of vulnerabilities on IoT protocols.

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