Immune checkpoint inhibitors, which promote or suppress the anti-tumor immune response, are becoming the mainstay of cancer treatment. In 2018, CheckMate 214 study showed a higher response rate with ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy compared to conventional therapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma. We report a case of complete response and durable response for two years to ipilimumab and nivolumab combination therapy in a patient with postoperative renal cancer recurrence that caused immune-related adverse events such as interstitial pneumonia and hepatotoxicity.
No head-to-head trials have compared the efficacy of tisagenlecleucel versus historical treatments for adults with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (r/r DLBCL). This study indirectly compared the overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR) associated with tisagenlecleucel, using data from the JULIET study (NCT02445248), versus historical treatments assessed in the CORAL study follow-up population. To assess treatment effects in the treated (full analysis set [FAS]) and enrolled (intent-to-treat [ITT]) study populations, the JULIET FAS vs. the CORAL follow-up FAS and JULIET ITT vs. CORAL follow-up ITT populations were separately compared. Propensity score weighting using standardized mortality ratio weight (SMRW) and fine stratification weight (FSW) was used to compare OS and ORR, adjusting for baseline confounders. The results indicated that tisagenlecleucel was associated with a lower hazard of death among the FAS (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI], both FSW and SMRW: 0.44 [0.32, 0.59]) and ITT populations (FSW: 0.60 [0.44, 0.77], SMRW: 0.57 [0.44, 0.73]; all p<0.001). Median OS was 12.48 months (JULIET) vs. 4.34-4.40 months (CORAL) for the FAS, and 8.25 (JULIET) vs. 4.04-4.86 (CORAL) for the ITT populations. Tisagenlecleucel was associated with a significantly higher ORR compared to historical treatments among the FAS (adjusted response rate difference [95% CI], both FSW and SMRW: 36% [22%, 0.48%]; p<0.001) and among the ITT populations after SMRW adjustment (11% [0%, 22%]; p=0.043). This analysis supports that improved response and OS are achieved in r/r DLBCL patients treated with tisagenlecleucel when compared to those treated with alternative historical treatments.
Platinum-based chemotherapy is the de facto standard treatment for metastatic or unresectable thymic carcinoma. The optimal chemotherapy regimen has not yet been determined, including whether this should be combined with a second- or third-generation anti-cancer agent. We retrospectively evaluated the data of patients with metastatic or unresectable thymic carcinoma who were treated with a combination of cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy between 2002 and 2021 (trial registration UMIN000012175). The primary endpoint was response rate according to the RECIST criteria version 1.1. Secondary endpoints were disease control rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity (adverse events). Some patients analyzed in this study were also included in the previous trial, which was terminated early. For this analysis, we included 18 patients with a median age of 56 years and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. All patients had clinical stage IVa or IVb thymic carcinoma according to the Masaoka-Koga staging system. The response rate was 44% and the disease control rate was 89%. The median PFS was 8.4 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7–11.6 months) and the median OS was 45.6 months (95% CI: 15.7–69.1 months). Grade 3 or worse hematological toxicity was observed in 5 patients and grade 3 or worse non-hematological toxicity was observed in 3 patients. None of the patients developed febrile neutropenia, and no treatment-related deaths occurred. Thus, the combination of cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic thymic carcinoma showed efficacy and acceptable toxicity.
Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) management is primarily supportive. Pulmonary vasodilators, such as inhaled epoprostenol (iEPO), have been shown to improve PaO2:FiO2 (PF) and are used as adjunctive therapy. Objective To identify the positive response rate and variables associated with response to iEPO in adults with ARDS. A positive response to iEPO was defined as a 10% improvement in PF within 6 hours. Methods This retrospective study included adults with ARDS treated with iEPO. The primary endpoint was the variables associated with a positive response to iEPO. Secondary endpoints were positive response rate and the change in PF and SpO2:FiO2 within 6 hours. Statistical analysis included multivariable regression. Results Three hundred thirty-one patients were included. As baseline PF increased, the odds of responding to iEPO decreased (odds ratio [OR], 0.752, 95% CI, 0.69-0.819, p < 0.001). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related ARDS (OR 0.478, 95% CI, 0.281-0.814, p = 0.007) was associated with decreased odds of a positive response to iEPO. The total population had a 68.3% positive response rate to iEPO. SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS and non-SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS had a 59.5% and 72.7% positive response rate, respectively. iEPO significantly improved PF (71 vs 95, P < 0.001) in the whole population. Conclusion and Relevance iEPO was associated with a positive effect in a majority of moderate-to-severe ARDS patients, including patients with SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS. Lower baseline PF and non-SARS-CoV-2-related ARDS were significantly associated with a positive response to iEPO. The ability to predict which patients will respond to iEPO can facilitate better utilization.
PD-1 blockade enhances the function of anti-tumor T-cells and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells. In a single-center, open-label, phase 2 trial, we tested the combination of pembrolizumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody and rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that induces ADCC, in 30 follicular lymphoma (FL) patients with rituximab-sensitive disease who relapsed after ≥1 prior therapy. Pembrolizumab was administered at 200mg IV every 3 weeks for up to 16 cycles and rituximab was given at 375mg/m2 IV weekly for 4 weeks in cycle 1 only. The most common grade 3/4 adverse events (AE) were liver enzyme abnormalities (3%), diarrhea (3%), nausea (3%), aseptic meningitis (3%) and pancreatitis (3%). Low-grade immune-related AEs were reported for 80% of patients, including diarrhea (43%), liver enzyme abnormalities (33%), thyroid dysfunction (27%), and rash (23%). Grade 3 or 4 immune related AEs occurred in 13% of patients. Treatment-related AEs led to discontinuation in 6 (20%) patients. Overall response rate (primary endpoint) was 67% and complete response rate was 50%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 12.6 months (95% CI, 8.2-27.6 months), the 3-year overall survival rate was 97%, and 23% of patients were in remission at a median follow up of 35 months. Presence of a high CD8+ T-effector score at baseline in the tumor was associated with induction of a complete response and improved PFS. In this single arm, phase 2 study, the combination of pembrolizumab and rituximab demonstrates favorable efficacy and safety profile in relapsed FL. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02446457.
At present, the main therapies for ß-thalassemia patients include regular blood transfusion and iron chelation, associating with a number of limitations. Thalidomide, a fetal hemoglobin (HbF) inducer that promotes γ-globin gene expression, has been reported to be effective for ß-thalassemia. Thus, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for treating patients with ß-thalassemia. We searched the related studies from eight databases published from inception until December 1, 2021. The R 4.0.5 language programming was used to perform meta-analysis. After screening of retrieved articles, 12 articles were included that enrolled a total of 451 patients. The Cochrane Collaboration risk assessment tool was used to evaluate the quality and the bias risk of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and non randomized trials were assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). After treatment with thalidomide, the pooled overall response rate (ORR) was 85% (95% confidence interval (CI): 80–90%), and the pooled complete response rate (CRR) was 54% (95% confidence interval: 31–76%). Compared with the placebo group, the thalidomide group had higher odds of overall response rate (odds ratio = 20.4; 95% CI: 6.75–61.64) and complete response rate (odds ratio = 20.4; 95% CI: 6.75–61.64). A statistically significant increase in hemoglobin level and HbF level after treatment, while there was no statistically significant difference in adult hemoglobin (HbA) level, spleen size, and serum ferritin. According to the results of ORR and CRR, transfusion-dependent thalassemia (TDT) patients showed remarkable efficacy of thalidomide, 83 and 52% respectively. So we analyzed 30 transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients from three studies and found that the most frequent ß-globin gene mutations were CD41-42 (-TCTT), while response to thalidomide did not show any statistically significant relationship with XmnI polymorphism or CD41-42 (-TCTT) mutation. About 30% of patients experienced mild adverse effects of thalidomide. Collectively, thalidomide is a relatively safe and effective therapy to reduce the blood transfusion requirements and to increase Hb level in patients with ß-thalassemia.
Health scientists strive for a smooth recruitment of physicians for research projects like surveys. Teaching physicians are an easy to approach population that is already affiliated with a university by teaching students in their practice. How do response rates compare between a convenient online survey among teaching physicians and an elaborate postal survey in a random sample of unknown physicians? Data from the TMI-GP study on the use of memory tests in general practice were used.
Physicians in the random sample responded to the postal survey more often than teaching physicians to the online survey (59.5% vs. 18.9%; odds ratio 7.06; 95% confidence interval 4.81–10.37; p < 0.001). Although it is unclear whether the sample, the survey mode (online vs. postal) or both account for this effect, it is noteworthy that even in such a convenience sample of known/committed physicians, an adequate response rate could not be reached without a tailored and elaborated survey technique. Responders in the two samples were comparable regarding a content-related item (use of memory tests; Χ2 (df = 1) = 3.07; p = 0.080).
AbstractMost children have a mild course of acute COVID-19. Only few mainly non-controlled studies with small sample size have evaluated long-term recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate symptoms and duration of ‘long COVID’ in children. A nationwide cohort study of 37,522 children aged 0–17 years with RT-PCR verified SARS-CoV-2 infection (response rate 44.9%) and a control group of 78,037 children (response rate 21.3%). An electronic questionnaire was sent to all children from March 24th until May 9th, 2021. Symptoms lasting > 4 weeks were common among both SARS-CoV-2 children and controls. However, SARS-CoV-2 children aged 6–17 years reported symptoms more frequently than the control group (percent difference 0.8%). The most reported symptoms among pre-school children were fatigue Risk Difference (RD) 0.05 (CI 0.04–0.06), loss of smell RD 0.01 (CI 0.01–0.01), loss of taste RD 0.01 (CI 0.01–0.02) and muscle weakness RD 0.01 (CI 0.00–0.01). Among school children the most significant symptoms were loss of smell RD 0.12 (CI 0.12–0.13), loss of taste RD 0.10 (CI 0.09–0.10), fatigue RD 0.05 (CI 0.05–0.06), respiratory problems RD 0.03 (CI 0.03–0.04), dizziness RD 0.02 (CI 0.02–0.03), muscle weakness RD 0.02 (CI 0.01–0.02) and chest pain RD 0.01 (CI 0.01–0.01). Children in the control group experienced significantly more concentration difficulties, headache, muscle and joint pain, cough, nausea, diarrhea and fever than SARS-CoV-2 infected. In most children ‘long COVID’ symptoms resolved within 1–5 months.Conclusions: Long COVID in children is rare and mainly of short duration.
What is Known:• There are increasing reports on ‘long COVID’ in adults.• Only few studies have evaluated the long-term recovery from COVID-19 in children, and common for all studies is a small sample size (median number of children included 330), and most lack a control group.
What is New:• 0.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive children reported symptoms lasting >4 weeks (‘long COVID’), when compared to a control group.• The most common ‘long COVID’ symptoms were fatigue, loss of smell and loss of taste, dizziness, muscle weakness, chest pain and respiratory problems.• These ‘long COVID’ symptoms cannot be assigned to psychological sequelae of social restrictions.• Symptoms such as concentration difficulties, headache, muscle- and joint pain as well as nausea are not ‘long COVID’ symptoms.• In most cases ‘long COVID’ symptoms resolve within 1-5 months.
Digital information resources are fetching more and more imperative for the academic community. The increase of technical colleges in Andhra Pradesh are quiet noteworthy and in advance of various states of India. Digital resources are measured as imperative resources of teaching, research and training. Consequently, digital resources play a important role in academic libraries as they are mostly jingle for the support of academic brilliancy and research. For these research questionnaires were distributed to the faculty members of 10 selected engineering colleges in East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Accordingly, 400 questionnaire distributed amongst the faculty members of 10 engineering colleges. Out of 400, only 336 questionnaires were received back that is the overall response rate is 84%.. 27.98% of the faculties are utilize digital resources for bring up to date Knowledge. It is also found from the study that preponderance of the faculty members were satisfied with available digital resources.