soil water deficit
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2021 ◽  
Vol 192 ◽  
pp. 104651
Ruixin Shao ◽  
Shuangjie Jia ◽  
Yulou Tang ◽  
Junjie Zhang ◽  
Hongwei Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jingwen Zhang ◽  
Kaiyu Guan ◽  
Bin Peng ◽  
Ming Pan ◽  
Wang Zhou ◽  

AbstractIrrigation is an important adaptation to reduce crop yield loss due to water stress from both soil water deficit (low soil moisture) and atmospheric aridity (high vapor pressure deficit, VPD). Traditionally, irrigation has primarily focused on soil water deficit. Observational evidence demonstrates that stomatal conductance is co-regulated by soil moisture and VPD from water supply and demand aspects. Here we use a validated hydraulically-driven ecosystem model to reproduce the co-regulation pattern. Specifically, we propose a plant-centric irrigation scheme considering water supply-demand dynamics (SDD), and compare it with soil-moisture-based irrigation scheme (management allowable depletion, MAD) for continuous maize cropping systems in Nebraska, United States. We find that, under current climate conditions, the plant-centric SDD irrigation scheme combining soil moisture and VPD, could significantly reduce irrigation water use (−24.0%) while maintaining crop yields, and increase economic profits (+11.2%) and irrigation water productivity (+25.2%) compared with MAD, thus SDD could significantly improve water sustainability.

2021 ◽  
Gregoire LE PROVOST ◽  
Theo Gerardin ◽  
Christophe Plomion ◽  
Oliver Brendel

Background: Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important adaptive trait for soil water deficit. The molecular and physiological bases of WUE regulation in crops have been studied in detail in the context of plant breeding. Knowledge for most forest tree species lags behind, despite the need to identify populations or genotypes able to cope with the longer, more intense drought periods likely to result from climate warming. Results: We aimed to bridge this gap in knowledge for sessile oak (Quercus Petraeae Matt. L.), one of the most ecologically and economically important tree species in Europe, using a factorial design including two genotypes (low and high WUE) and two watering regimes (control and drought). By monitoring the ecophysiological response, we were able to identify groups of genotypes with high and low WUE. We then performed RNA-seq to quantify gene expression for the most extreme genotypes exposed to two watering regimes. By analyzing the interaction term, we were able to capture the molecular strategy of each group of plants for coping with drought. Regardless of water availability, the high WUE genotypes overexpressed genes associated with drought responses, and the control of stomatal density and distribution, and displayed a downregulation of genes associated with early stomatal closure and high transpiration rate. High-WUE genotypes, thus, coped with drought by fine-tuning the expression of genes with known functions in the regulation of stomatal size, density, movement or aperture and transpiration rate. Conclusion: Fine physiological screening of sessile oaks with contrasting WUE, and their molecular characterization i) highlighted subtle differences in transcription between low and high WUE genotypes, identifying key molecular players in the genetic control of this trait, and ii) revealed the genes underlying the molecular strategy that had evolved in each group to cope with water deficit, providing new insight into the value of WUE for adaptation to drought.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 1615
Zikria Zafar ◽  
Fahad Rasheed ◽  
Ahsan Ul Haq ◽  
Faridah Hanum Ibrahim ◽  
Shazia Afzal ◽  

Mitigating climate change requires the identification of tree species that can tolerate water stress with fewer negative impacts on plant productivity. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the water stress tolerance of young saplings of C. erectus and M. alba under three soil water deficit treatments (control, CK, 90% field capacity, FC, medium stress MS, 60% FC and high stress, HS, 30% FC) under controlled conditions. Results showed that leaf and stem dry weight decreased significantly in both species under MS and HS. However, root dry weight and root/shoot ratio increased, and total dry weight remained similar to CK under MS in C. erectus saplings. Stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation rate decreased, and intrinsic water use efficiency increased significantly in both species under MS and HS treatments. The concentration of hydrogen peroxide, superoxide radical, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage increased in both the species under soil water deficit but was highest in M. alba. The concentration of antioxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase also increased in both species under MS and HS but was highest in C. erectus. Therefore, results suggest that C. erectus saplings depicted a better tolerance to MS due to an effective antioxidative enzyme system.

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