Infection Control
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2021 ◽  
Vol 09 (10) ◽  
pp. E1536-E1541
Daisuke Kikuchi ◽  
Daiki Ariyoshi ◽  
Yugo Suzuki ◽  
Yorinari Ochiai ◽  
Hiroyuki Odagiri ◽  

Abstract Background and study aims Infection control is essential when performing endoscopic procedures, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, we have developed a new shielding device called STEP for infection control in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients and methods STEP consists of a mask worn by the patient and a drape that is connected to the mask and covers the endoscope. A suction tube attached to the mask prevents aerosols from spreading. The endoscopist operates the endoscope through the drape. Three endoscopists performed a total of 18 examinations using an upper endoscopy training model with and without STEP. Endoscopic images were evaluated by three other endoscopists, using a visual analog scale. We also simulated contact, droplet, and aerosol infection and evaluated the utility of STEP. Results All examinations were conducted without a problem. Mean procedure time was 126.3 ± 11.6 seconds with STEP and 122.3 ± 10.0 seconds without STEP. The mean visual analog score was 90.7 ± 10.1 with STEP and 90.4 ± 10.0 without STEP. In the contact model, adherence of simulated contaminants was 4.9 ± 1.4 % without STEP and 0 % with STEP. In the droplet model, the number of simulated contaminants attached to the paper was 338 273 ± 90 735 pixels without STEP and 0 with STEP. In the aerosol model, the total number of particles was 346 837 ± 9485 without STEP and was significantly reduced to 222 ± 174 with STEP. Conclusions No effect on examination time or endoscopic image quality was observed when using STEP in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Using STEP reduced the diffusion of simulated contaminants in all three infection models.

2021 ◽  
Joanne Enticott ◽  
Jaskirath Gill ◽  
Simon Bacon ◽  
Kim Louise Lavoie ◽  
Dan Epstein ◽  

Objective: To examine SARS–CoV–2 vaccine confidence, attitudes and intentions in Australian adults. Methods: Nationwide survey in February–March 2021 of adults representative across sex, age and location. Vaccine uptake and a range of putative drivers of uptake, including vaccine confidence, socioeconomic status, and sources of trust, were examined using logistic and Bayesian regressions for vaccines generally and for SARS–CoV–2 vaccines. Results: Overall 1,166 surveys were collected from participants aged 18 to 90 years (mean 52, SD of 19). Seventy–eight percent reported being likely to receive a vaccine against COVID–19. Higher SARS–CoV–2 vaccine intentions were associated with: increasing age (OR: 1.04 95%CI [1.03–1.044]), being male (OR: 1.37, 95% CI [1.08–1.72]), residing in the least disadvantaged area quintile (OR: 2.27 95%CI [1.53–3.37]) and a self-perceived high risk of getting COVID–19 (OR: 1.52 95% CI [1.08–2.14]). However, 72% of participants did not believe that they were at a high risk of getting COVID-19. Findings regarding vaccines in general were similar except there were no sex differences. For both the SARS–CoV–2 vaccine and vaccines in general, there were no differences in intentions to vaccinate as a function of education level, perceived income level, and rurality. Knowing that the vaccine is safe and effective, and that getting vaccinated will protect others, trusting the company that made it and getting vaccination recommended by a doctor were reported to influence a large proportion of the study cohort to uptake the SARS–CoV–2 vaccine. Seventy–eight percent reported the intent to continue engaging in virus-protecting behaviours (mask wearing, social distancing etc.) post–vaccine. Conclusions: Seventy–eight percent of Australians are likely to receive a SARS–CoV–2 vaccine. Key influencing factors identified in this study (e.g. knowing that the vaccine is safe and effective, getting a doctor's recommendation to get vaccinated) can be used to inform public health messaging to enhance vaccination rates. Keywords: COVID–19, Infection control, Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Respiratory infections

2021 ◽  
Vol 116 ◽  
pp. 903-917
Dhanasekaran Solairaj ◽  
Qiya Yang ◽  
Ngolong Ngea Guillaume Legrand ◽  
Michael N. Routledge ◽  
Hongyin Zhang

2021 ◽  
pp. JNM-D-20-00044
Elena Gurková ◽  
Ian Blackman ◽  
Daniela Bartoníčková ◽  
Darja Jarošová ◽  
Lenka Machálková ◽  

Background and PurposeOnly a limited number of items involved in missed nursing care inventories specifically focused on infection control practices. The study aimed to adapt and evaluate psychometric properties of the Czech and Slovak version of the Infection Control Missed Care survey; and to assess and compare the amount, type, and reasons for missed nursing care in infection prevention and control among Czech and Slovak nurses.MethodsThe convenience sample of 1459 nurses from the Czech and Slovak republic was recruited. Analysis of the nurses' responses to both subscales of the surveys and validation of their data was undertaken using the item response theory (Rasch scaling).ResultsThe now-modified Czech version consists only of 20 items measuring the type and frequency of missed care and 11 items focusing on the reasons for missed care. The now modified Slovak version consists of 34 items measuring the type and frequency of missed care and 17 items measuring the reasons for missed care. Reliability estimates with the removal of unreliable items showed acceptable reliability estimates for both sub-scales of the instrument.ConclusionsWith modification to the two subscales used in the survey (removal of poorly fitting items) it should be reliable, and the resulting data could be used for further investigation such as factor analysis or modelling. The modified Infection Control Missed Care survey could be useful in further research investigating a relationship between nurse staffing, skill mix, and infection control outcomes in acute care hospitals.

2021 ◽  
Ruchi Roy ◽  
Janet Zayas ◽  
Stephen J. Wood ◽  
Mohamed F. Mohamed ◽  
Dulce M. Frausto ◽  

AbstractInfection is a major co-morbidity that contributes to impaired healing in diabetic wounds. Although impairments in diabetic neutrophils have been blamed for this co-morbidity, what causes these impairments and whether they can be overcome, remain largely unclear. Diabetic neutrophils, extracted from diabetic individuals, exhibit chemotaxis impairment but this peculiar functional impairment has been largely ignored because it appears to contradict the clinical findings which blame excessive neutrophil influx (neutrophilia) as a major impediment to healing in chronic diabetic ulcers. Here, we report that exposure to glucose in diabetic range results in impaired chemotaxis signaling through the FPR1 chemokine receptor in neutrophils, culminating in reduced chemotaxis and delayed neutrophil trafficking in wound in diabetic animals, and rendering diabetic wound vulnerable to infection. We further show that at least some auxiliary chemokine receptors remain functional under diabetic conditions and their engagement by the pro-inflammatory cytokine CCL3, overrides the requirement for FPR1 signaling and substantially improves infection control by jumpstarting the neutrophil response toward infection, and stimulates healing in diabetic wound. We posit that CCL3 may have real therapeutic potential for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers if it is applied topically after the surgical debridement process which is intended to reset chronic ulcers into acute fresh wounds.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
T. Saraswathy ◽  
S. Nalliah ◽  
A. M Rosliza ◽  
S Ramasamy ◽  
K. Jalina ◽  

Abstract Background This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of an innovative approach using interprofessional simulation scenarios (IPSS) in improving knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of hospital-acquired infection control (HAIC) among health professionals. Methods The interventional study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants from surgical, intensive care, and other units. Thirty-six health professionals in the experimental and forty in the control group completed the study. All subjects participated in an interactive lecture and demonstrated four IPSS on HAIC i.e. (i) taking blood specimen (ii) bedsore dressing (iii) collecting sputum for acid-fast bacilli and (iv) intermittent bladder catheterization. Each team consisted of a doctor and a nurse. A self-administered questionnaire on KAP on HAIC was completed by respondents during the pre-, immediately and, post-intervention. An independent t-test was conducted to measure the significance between the experimental and control group. Results The mean scores for KAP among the experimental group increased following the intervention. Significant differences in scores were seen between the two groups post-intervention (p < 0.05). Overall, using the four procedures as surrogates, the interprofessional learning approach in HAIC intervention showed improvement among the participants in the experimental group following structured instructions. The IPSS approach in HAIC clearly shows its relevance in improving learning outcomes. Conclusions Well-designed interprofessional simulated scenarios can be effective in skills training in improving KAP in HAIC among health professionals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Wei-Ling Wu ◽  
Zealyn Shi-Lin Heng ◽  
Samuel Ken-En Gan ◽  

Handwashing is a basic infection control practice that needs to be performed correctly to be effective. In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, its correct practice is emphasized by public health institutions. However, turning a practice into a habit requires acceptance for adoption of the twenty-second proper procedure to which difficulty remains. To promote and convince the average user, we developed the “APD Handwash app” as a home-use demonstration/education tool to the pitfalls and need of proper handwashing practices through the detection of assigned clean or dirty areas on the hand in a quantitative manner to provide a gauge to the effectiveness of washing when used before and after washing.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0254432
Bui Thi Thu Ha ◽  
La Ngoc Quang ◽  
Pham Quoc Thanh ◽  
Duong Minh Duc ◽  
Tolib Mirzoev ◽  

Introduction Community engagement (CE) is an effective public health strategy for improving health outcomes. There is limited published knowledge about effective approaches to CE in ensuring effective responses to COVID-19 throughout lockdowns, travel restrictions and social distancing. In this paper, we contribute to bridging this gap by highlighting experience of CE in Vietnam, specifically focusing on migrant workers in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study design was used with qualitative data collection was carried out during August-October 2020. Two districts were purposefully selected from two large industrial zones. Data was collected using in-depth interviews (n = 36) with individuals and households, migrants and owners of dormitories, industrial zone factory representatives, community representatives and health authorities. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis approach. The study received ethics approval from the Hanoi University Institutional Review Board. Results The government’s response to COVID-19 was spearheaded by the multi-sectoral National Steering Committee for the Prevention and Control of COVID-19, chaired by the Vice Prime Minister and comprised different members from 23 ministries. This structure was replicated throughout the province and local levels and all public and private organizations. Different activities were carried out by local communities, following four key principles of infection control: early detection, isolation, quarantine and hospitalization. We found three key determinants of engagement of migrant workers with COVID-19 prevention and control: availability of resources, appropriate capacity strengthening, transparent and continuous communication and a sense of trust in government legitimacy. Discussion and conclusion Our results support the current literature on CE in infection control which highlights the importance of context and suggests that future CE should consider five key components: multi-sectoral collaboration with a whole-of-community approach to strengthen governance structures with context-specific partnerships; mobilization of resources and decentralization of decision making to encourage self-reliance and building of local capacity; capacity building through training and supervision to local institutions; transparent and clear communication of health risks and sensitization of local communities to improve compliance and foster trust in the government measures; and understanding the urgent needs ensuring of social security and engaging all parts of the community, specifically the vulnerable groups.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Sarah Denford ◽  
Kate Morton ◽  
Jeremy Horwood ◽  
Rachel de Garang ◽  
Lucy Yardley

Abstract Background Within-household transmission of Covid-19 is responsible for a significant number of infections. Efforts to protect at risk communities are needed. This study explored the acceptability of offering accommodation to support self-isolation among at risk populations, to prevent transmission of Covid-19 within vulnerable households. Methods Mixed methods design structured in two phases. Phase 1: Survey of 545 individuals who had provided consent to be contacted about ongoing research projects into infection control. Phase 2: Semi-structured interviews with 19 participants from ethnic minority and low income communities. Results Many survey and interview participants viewed the provision of accommodation as important and necessary in certain contexts. Of the 110 survey respondents, 85 (77%) said that they were not able to isolate at home. Among this group, 24 (28%) said they would accept accommodation and 23 (27%) said that they would probably accept. Of those unable to isolate at home, and at high risk if they caught the virus (N = 36) or living with someone at high risk (N 18), 19 (35%) said that they would accept, and 12 (22%) said they would probably accept accommodation. Factors influencing uptake of accommodation included perceived 1) household vulnerability 2) virus exposure and 3) lack of isolation at home options. Barriers to accepting the accommodation offer included 1) able to isolate at home 2) wanting to be with family 3) caring responsibilities 4) mental wellbeing concerns 5) concerns about moving when ill and 6) infection control concerns. Participants raised issues that should be addressed before accommodation is offered, including questions regarding who should use temporary accommodation and when, and how infection control in temporary accommodation would be managed. Conclusion The provision of accommodation to prevent within household transmission of Covid-19 is viewed as acceptable, feasible and necessary by some people who are concerned about infection transmission in the home and are unable to self-isolate or socially distance at home. Different households will have different requirements, e.g., those with caring responsibilities, and to overcome these challenges additional support may be needed for the provision of accommodation to be feasible to those who could benefit most.

Joseph T Hicks ◽  
Smita Das ◽  
Almea Matanock ◽  
Anastacia Griego-Fisher ◽  
Daniel Sosin

Abstract New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) conducted a matched case-control study to compare 315 persons (cases) with and 945 persons (controls) without SARS-CoV-2 secondary detection (i.e., positive SARS-CoV-2 test ≥90 days after first detection as of December 10, 2020). Compared with controls, cases had greater odds of higher SARS-CoV-2 testing frequency (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.2), being female (aOR = 1.6), being non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Native (aOR = 2.3), having diabetes mellitus (aOR = 1.8), and residing/working in detention/correctional facilities (aOR = 4.7). Diagnostic tools evaluating infectiousness at secondary detection are urgently needed to inform infection control practices.

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