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2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 225-234
Ni Ketut Utami Nilawati ◽  
Ayu Manik Dirgayusari ◽  
I Kadek Dwi Gandika Supartha ◽  
Dewa Putu Yudhi Ardiana ◽  
I Gde Eka Dharsika

With the current outbreak of the corona virus, all sectors must start to improve so that they can survive during a pandemic, including the education sector. The teaching and learning process carried out during a pandemic situation like this is carried out using an online system and distance learning. Teachers must be able to provide facilities so that students can absorb the material optimally. Another problem that arises is that not all teachers are able to implement the distance learning system and also using the applications or technologies that support distance learning system. To solve this problem, the school needs to get the training of how to make a distance learning system media and in this case the school cooperates with STMIK STIKOM INDONESIA (STIKI) for the training. The training materials provided are google classroom training, google form and training on making the learning videos. The results of the analysis were obtained from the pretest and posttest questionnaires which were described descriptively. After receiving the training, most of the teachers will switch to use the Google Classroom media instead of WA social media, because 100% of the teachers stated that Google Classroom is very helpful in supporting online learning. In addition, according to the posttest questionnaires, 8.3% of the teachers understand very well about the features contained in Google Classroom, 41.7% understand it well and 50% are understand it quite well, meaning that most of the teachers understand the use of Google Classroom. The training also received a good responses from SDN 2 Kawan School and it will be applied  to support their distance learning system.

2022 ◽  
pp. 127-140
Aaron Lelo Pambu ◽  
Abdellah Zinedine

The current outbreak of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus disease 2019; previously 2019- nCoV), epi-centered in Hubei Province of the People's Republic of China, has spread to many other countries caused an extreme burden for healthcare systems globally. Coronaviruses are traditionally considered nonlethal pathogens to humans, mainly causing approximately 15% of common colds. In this century, we have encountered highly pathogenic human CoVs twice. In this chapter, the authors propose to focus the gastrointestinal physiopathology of the infection of SARS-Cov2. This chapter will develop subject like the gastrointestinal manifestations of the infection to SARS-Cov2. The second part of this chapter will develop the role of the gut microbiome in the SARS-Cov2 diseases susceptibilities. And then the authors will show the etiopathogenesis of SARS-Cov2 associated diarrhea. As reported by previous studies, the SARS-Cov virus entry into host cell is mediated by the interaction between the envelop-anchored viral spike protein and the host receptor named angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (04) ◽  
pp. 261-266
Nosheen Sarwar ◽  
Saba Ansar ◽  
Momminah Qamar

OBJECTIVES: The current study is conducted to assess the knowledge and behavior of dentists in Pakistan and various practice modifications adopted in response to current outbreak of COVID-19. METHODOLOGY: Well-constructed online questionnaires were distributed among 300 subjects including dental students (3rd year and 4th year), house surgeons, and dental surgeons of two public hospitals of Punjab, Pakistan. RESULTS: 90% of dentists are afraid of getting the infection and reluctant to continue their dental practice. Most of the dentists 95% are aware of the mode of transmission of disease and follow WHO guidelines but still a large number of dentists are in fear and anxious to perform only emergency dental procedures. CONCLUSION: Most dentists resume their dental practice by following WHO new guidelines related to practice in COVID -19 outbreak but still a significant number of dentists close their dental practice for an indefinite period due to anxiety and fear of being ill or got infected by COVID-19. KEYWORD: anxiety and fear, practice modifications, outbreak, COVID-19, knowledge and behavior

Mahya Shabani ◽  
Besharat Rahimi ◽  
Mohammad Mehdi Mehrabi Nejad ◽  
Reza Erfanian ◽  
Arezu Najafi

Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) is confirmed to develop neurocognitive complications. In the present paper, we describe two patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and excessive daytime sleepiness. In the present study, we reported two laboratory-confirmed cases of COVID-19 with excessive daytime sleepiness. Patients had drowsiness and mild confusion on presentation. In both cases, CNS infections, including meningitis and encephalitis, were ruled out. Both patients’ symptoms remarkably improved following the therapeutic course indicating the direct effect of SARS-CoV2 in sleep modulating centers on the brain. COVID-19 should be considered in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness and drowsiness in the current outbreak.

Emilio Garcia-Moran ◽  
Marta Hernández ◽  
David Abad ◽  
José M. Eiros

SARS-CoV-2 is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA coronavirus that causes COVID-19, of which the current outbreak has resulted in a high number of cases and fatalities throughout the world, even vaccine doses are being administered. The aim of this work was to scan the SARS-CoV-2 genome in search for therapeutic targets. We found a sequence in the 5’UTR (NC 045512:74-130), consisting of a typical heptamer next to a structured region that may cause ribosomal frameshifting. The potential biological value of this region is relevant through its low similarity with other viruses, including coronaviruses related to SARS-CoV, and its high sequence conservation within multiple SARS-CoV-2 isolates. We have predicted the secondary structure of the region by means of different bioinformatic tools. We have suggested a most probable secondary structure to proceed with a 3D reconstruction of the structured segment. Finally, we carried out virtual docking on the 3D structure to look for a binding site and then for drug ligands from a database of lead compounds. Several molecules that could be probably administered as oral drugs show promising binding affinity within the structured region, and so it could be possible interfere its potential regulatory role.

Azmuddin Razali ◽  
Mohammad Amir Wan Harun

This study examined the implementation of moratorium in the Islamic hire purchase financing based on Al-Ijarah Thumma Al-Bay’ (AITAB) from the Shariah perspective. The implementation of moratorium by Bank Negara Malaysia (BNM) is a new practice in the banking and finance industry in Malaysia. Implementing the moratorium causes several changes to the AITAB contract such as the extension in contract tenure and the increase in the total payment obligation due to the profit charged on the outstanding principal. This study analysed these changes from the Shariah perspective by using the al-takyif al-fiqhi methodology. The results of the analysis confirm the practice of moratorium by IFIs is in line with the Shariah requirements as long as it is agreed by the parties to the contract - which are the bank and the customer. Needless to say, both Ijarah Policy Document and Hire Purchase Act 1967 allow any forms of amendments including profit compounding when the AITAB contract is restructured, provided that such amendments are agreed between the contracting parties. Despite this permissibility, IFIs are still required to comply with the new ruling issued by SAC BNM that prohibits the practice of profit compounding during the COVID-19 crisis. Although, in principle, the ruling is based on the concept of ihsan (beneficence) which is not compulsory (wajib) but rather recommendation (istihbab) from the Shariah perspective; however, from the regulatory perspective the ruling is compulsory for IFIs to comply pursuant to section 28(1) and 28(2) of Islamic Financial Services Act 2013 (IFSA) that stated compliance with Shariah means compliance with any ruling of the Shariah Advisory Council. The moratorium is seen as a manifestation of the concept of ihsan (beneficence) towards the customers affected financially due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This commendable effort should be encouraged and continued by the Islamic financial institutions in upholding the Shariah principle of maslahah and lifting of difficulties (raf al-haraj), particularly in the current outbreak of COVID-19 and the impact of MCO.

Work ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Asghar Lotfollahzadeh ◽  
Leila Rastgoo ◽  
Islam Shirinzadeh ◽  
Seyedeh Melika Kharghani Moghadam ◽  
Hossein Ebrahimi

BACKGROUND: Workplaces are prone to the current outbreak- of COVID-19. Despite the production of the COVID-19 vaccine, due to some challenges in vaccinating all people worldwide, adherence to health protocols is still one of the ways to prevent infection. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted with the purpose of investigating the compliance of COVID-19 protocols in the workplaces of Ardabil, Iran. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional research conducted on the workplaces affiliated to Ardabil University of Medical Sciences between August and September, 2020. A researcher-designed checklist was completed once in early August and once at the end of September for the workplaces. Accordingly, these workplaces were inspected for any compliance with the COVID-19 prevention protocols by health centers during August and September. In addition, the number of patients with COVID-19 was determined for each one of the workplaces. RESULTS: The results showed that the highest increase was related to screening (57.8%) and the lowest change was related to personal hygiene (1.3%). The rates of increase in performance for small workshops, offices and industries were 35.4%, 33.1%and 12.4%, respectively. Moreover, a linear and inverse relationship was found between the incidence of COVID-19 and the level of observance of the OVID-19 prevention protocols. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, the inspection made by legal authorities led to the increased commitment of workplace managers to implement prevention programs, thereby increasing the observation level of these protocols in the workplace and reducing the incidence of COVID-19.

2021 ◽  
Vol 193 (12) ◽  
Sven G. Gehrke ◽  
Claudia Förderer ◽  
Ralf Weiskirchen ◽  
Wolfgang Stremmel

AbstractSpread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a demanding challenge. This is of particular importance in schools and public areas of unavoidable access. New viral mutations may increase infectivity and require even better methods to identify areas of potential hazards. High-throughput SARS-CoV-2 testing and legal restrictions are not effective in order to get the current outbreak under control. The occurrence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants with a higher transmissibility requires efficient strategies for early detection and surveillance. Until today, testing focuses on nasal or pharyngeal mucosa swabs, neglecting the origin of aerosolic transmission, thus failing to detect the spread by carriers of the virus. Therefore, in this study, SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels were determined by quantitative real time PCR in aerosols collected by non-powered cold traps. SARS-CoV-2 spreading kinetics were recorded in indoor hotspots within a high-endemic area. These hotspots included a SARS-CoV-2 isolation unit, an outpatient endoscopy facility, a concert hall, and a shopping mall. For determination of viral presence aerosols were collected by cold traps positioned at different locations in the area of interest over a period of 4–6 h. Indoor SARS-CoV-2 hotspots were found in non-ventilated areas and in zones that are predisposed to a buoyancy (chimney) effect. SARS-CoV-2 RNA in those aerosols reached concentrations of 105 copies/mL, while extensive outdoor air ventilation reliably eliminated SARS-CoV-2 aerosol contamination. The method presented herein is effective for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 indoor hotspots and may help to characterize the spreading kinetics of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, it can be used for the surveillance of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Due to low costs and easy handling, the procedure might enable efficient algorithms for COVID-19 screening and prevention.

Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1266
Shaikh Terkis Islam Pavel ◽  
Hazel Yetiskin ◽  
Muhammet Ali Uygut ◽  
Ahmet Furkan Aslan ◽  
Günsu Aydın ◽  

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 with its mutating strains has posed a global threat to safety during this COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, there are 123 candidate vaccines in human clinical trials and more than 190 candidates in preclinical development worldwide as per the WHO on 1 October 2021. The various types of vaccines that are currently approved for emergency use include viral vectors (e.g., adenovirus, University of Oxford/AstraZeneca, Gamaleya Sputnik V, and Johnson & Johnson), mRNA (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech), and whole inactivated (Sinovac Biotech and Sinopharm) vaccines. Amidst the emerging cases and shortages of vaccines for global distribution, it is vital to develop a vaccine candidate that recapitulates the severe and fatal progression of COVID-19 and further helps to cope with the current outbreak. Hence, we present the preclinical immunogenicity, protective efficacy, and safety evaluation of a whole-virion inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate (ERUCoV-VAC) formulated in aluminium hydroxide, in three animal models, BALB/c mice, transgenic mice (K18-hACE2), and ferrets. The hCoV-19/Turkey/ERAGEM-001/2020 strain was used for the safety evaluation of ERUCoV-VAC. It was found that ERUCoV-VAC was highly immunogenic and elicited a strong immune response in BALB/c mice. The protective efficacy of the vaccine in K18-hACE2 showed that ERUCoV-VAC induced complete protection of the mice from a lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Similar viral clearance rates with the safety evaluation of the vaccine in upper respiratory tracts were also positively appreciable in the ferret models. ERUCoV-VAC has been authorized by the Turkish Medicines and Medical Devices Agency and has now entered phase 3 clinical development (NCT04942405). The name of ERUCoV-VAC has been changed to TURKOVAC in the phase 3 clinical trial.

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