Gram Positive
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2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (1) ◽  
pp. 288-309
Govindaraj Vengateswari ◽  
Kandhasamy Lalitha ◽  
Muthugounder Subramanian Shivakumar ◽  

Antimicrobial peptides constitute key factors in insect humoral immune response against invading microorganisms. In this study, biochemical approach was identified antimicrobial peptides which appeared in larval hemolymph of Spodoptera litura after bacterial challenge. HPLC profile showed two major peaks in two samples, Brassica oleracea and Ricinus communis fed S. litura that were collected at 5 min interval. It was shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The highest zone of inhibition was observed in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in B. oleracea fed S. litura hemolymph fraction II and R. communis fed S. litura hemolymph fraction I and it also contributes the increased antioxidant, lysozyme, and less hemolytic activity were increase in treated groups. TLC activity was tested with hemolymph extract samples, pink color pots was identified the protein present in the samples. An SDS-PAGE result shows that high expression of antimicrobial peptide present in the treated sample. The appearance of peptides with such different properties in insect hemolymph in response to immune challenge indicates the complexity of the insect immune system.

Anand Kumar ◽  
Yosra A. Helmy ◽  
Zachary Fritts ◽  
Anastasia Vlasova ◽  
Linda J. Saif ◽  

Tafese Beyene Tufa ◽  
Colin R. Mackenzie ◽  
Hans Martin Orth ◽  
Tobias Wienemann ◽  
Tamara Nordmann ◽  

Abstract Background Infectious diseases are among the leading causes of death in many low-income countries, such as Ethiopia. Without reliable local data concerning causative pathogens and antimicrobial resistance, empiric treatment is suboptimal. The objective of this study was to characterize gram-negative bacteria (GNB) as pathogens and their resistance pattern in hospitalized patients with infections in central Ethiopia. Methods Patients ≥ 1 year of age with fever admitted to the Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from April 2016 to June 2018 were included. Blood and other appropriate clinical specimens were collected and cultured on appropriate media. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) was performed using the Kirby–Bauer method and VITEK® 2. Species identification and detection of resistance genes were conducted using MALDI-ToF MS (VITEK® MS) and PCR, respectively. Results Among the 684 study participants, 54.2% were male, and the median age was 22.0 (IQR: 14–35) years. Blood cultures were positive in 5.4% (n = 37) of cases. Among other clinical samples, 60.6% (20/33), 20.8% (5/24), and 37.5% (3/8) of swabs/pus, urine and other body fluid cultures, respectively, were positive. Among 66 pathogenic isolates, 57.6% (n = 38) were GNB, 39.4% (n = 26) were gram-positive, and 3.0% (n = 2) were Candida species. Among the isolated GNB, 42.1% (16/38) were Escherichia coli, 23.7% (9/38) Klebsiella pneumoniae and 10.5% (4/38) Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In total, 27/38 gram-negative isolates were available for further analysis. Resistance rates were as follows: ampicillin/sulbactam, 92.6% (n = 25); cefotaxime, 88.9% (n = 24); ceftazidime, 74.1% (n = 20); cefepime, 74.1% (n = 20); gentamicin, 55.6% (n = 15); piperacillin/tazobactam, 48.1% (n = 13); meropenem, 7.4% (n = 2); and amikacin, 3.7% (n = 1). The blaNDM-1 gene was detected in one K. pneumoniae and one Acinetobacter baumannii isolate, which carried an additional blaOXA-51 gene. The ESBL enzymes were detected in 81.5% (n = 22) of isolates as follows: TEM, 77.2% (n = 17); CTX-M-1 group, 68.2% (n = 15); SHV group, 27.3% (n = 6); and CTX-M-9 group, 9.1% (n = 2). Based on the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility results, empiric treatment initiated in 13 of 18 (72.2%) patients was likely ineffective. Conclusion We report a high prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria (81.5%) and carbapenem resistance (7.4%), with more than half of GNB carrying two or more ESBL enzymes resulting in suboptimal empiric antibiotic therapy. These findings indicate a need for local and national antimicrobial resistance surveillance and the strengthening of antimicrobial stewardship programs.

2022 ◽  
Taeok Bae ◽  
Bohyun Jeong ◽  
Majid Ali Shah ◽  
Eunjung Roh ◽  
Kyeong Kyu Kim ◽  

The Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is the only bacterium known to synthesize arginine from proline via the arginine-proline interconversion pathway, despite having genes for the well-conserved glutamate pathway. Since the proline-arginine interconversion pathway is repressed by CcpA-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR), CCR has been attributed to the arginine auxotrophy of S. aureus. Using ribose as a secondary carbon source, here, we demonstrate that S. aureus arginine auxotrophy is not due to CCR but due to the inadequate concentration of proline degradation product. Proline is degraded by proline dehydrogenase (PutA) into pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C). Although the PutA expression was fully induced by ribose, the P5C concentration remained insufficient to support arginine synthesis because P5C was constantly consumed by the P5C reductase ProC. When the P5C concentration was artificially increased by either PutA overexpression or proC-deletion, S. aureus could synthesize arginine from proline regardless of carbon source. In contrast, when the P5C concentration was reduced by overexpression of proC, it inhibited the growth of the ccpA-deletion mutant without arginine. Intriguingly, the ectopic expression of the glutamate pathway enzymes converted S. aureus into arginine prototroph. In an animal experiment, the arginine-proline interconversion pathway was not required for the survival of S. aureus. Based on these results, we concluded that S. aureus does not synthesize arginine from proline under physiological conditions. We also propose that arginine auxotrophy of S. aureus is not due to the CcpA-mediated CCR but due to the inactivity of the conserved glutamate pathway.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 107
Sahra Fonseca ◽  
Marie-Pierre Cayer ◽  
K. M. Tanvir Ahmmed ◽  
Nima Khadem-Mohtaram ◽  
Steve J. Charette ◽  

Technological innovations and quality control processes within blood supply organizations have significantly improved blood safety for both donors and recipients. Nevertheless, the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection remains non-negligible. Applying a nanoparticular, antibacterial coating at the surface of medical devices is a promising strategy to prevent the spread of infections. In this study, we characterized the antibacterial activity of an SiO2 nanoparticular coating (i.e., the “Medical Antibacterial and Antiadhesive Coating” [MAAC]) applied on relevant polymeric materials (PM) used in the biomedical field. Electron microscopy revealed a smoother surface for the MAAC-treated PM compared to the reference, suggesting antiadhesive properties. The antibacterial activity was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in accordance with ISO 22196. Bacterial growth was significantly reduced for the MAAC-treated PVC, plasticized PVC, polyurethane and silicone (90–99.999%) in which antibacterial activity of ≥1 log reduction was reached for all bacterial strains tested. Cytotoxicity was evaluated following ISO 10993-5 guidelines and L929 cell viability was calculated at ≥90% in the presence of MAAC. This study demonstrates that the MAAC could prevent bacterial contamination as demonstrated by the ISO 22196 tests, while further work needs to be done to improve the coating processability and effectiveness of more complex matrices.

Ricardo Romero-Arguelles ◽  
César Iván Romo-Sáenz ◽  
Karla Morán-Santibáñez ◽  
Patricia Tamez-Guerra ◽  
Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea ◽  

Plant-associated microorganisms represent a potential source of new antitumor compounds. The aim of the present study was to isolate endophytic and rhizosphere Gram-positive bacteria from Ibervillea sonorae and produce extracts with antitumor activity. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were obtained from 28 d bacterial fermentation, after which murine L5178Y-R lymphoma cells growth inhibition was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 15.62 µg/mL to 500 µg/mL by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide reduction colorimetric assay. IC50 and the selectivity index (SI) were calculated and compared with healthy control human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Identification of the isolated strains was performed using the 16S ribosomal gene and by MALDI-TOF MS mass spectrometry. The endophytic and rhizosphere bacterial extracts from strains ISE-B22, ISE-B26, ISE-B27, ISS-A01, ISS-A06, and ISS-A16 showed significant (p < 0.05) L5178Y-R cell growth inhibition, compared with an untreated control. The rhizosphere Micromonospora echinospora isolate ISS-A16 showed the highest (90.48%) percentage of lymphoma cells growth inhibition and SI (19.1) for PBMC, whereas the Bacillus subtilis ISE-B26 isolate caused significant (p < 0.01) growth inhibition (84.32%) and a SI of 5.2. Taken together, results of the present study evidenced antitumor effects by I. sonorae endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria culture extracts. Further research will involve the elucidation of the compounds that exert the antitumor activity and their evaluation in pre-clinical studies.

2022 ◽  
Shasthree Taduri ◽  
Suvarchala Vankudoth ◽  
Pavani Chirumamilla ◽  
Spoorthi Veera

The study aimed to identify bioactive compounds in <i>Muntingia calabura</i> leaf and root methanolic extracts. The Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) technique were used to identify bioactive compounds. GC-MS analysis revealed 38 compounds in the leaf and 15 compounds in the root methanolic extracts of <i>M. calabura</i>. The prime potent compound found in leaf extract is 2-{3-[(E)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethenyl]-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl}phenol with 5.78% peak area and cholest-4-en-6-on-3-ol is found in root extracts, has the highest 63.7% peak area and another potent compound Lupeol has 7.3% peak area. The bioactive compounds identified in <i>M. calabura</i> have antibacterial activity against various bacterial strains such as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which showed the efficacy of <i>in vivo</i> plant extracts. These findings validate the therapeutic potentiality of <i>M. calabura</i> leaf and root samples. Furthermore, these screened potential bioactive compounds can be used effectively for biomedical and therapeutic applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jamisha D. Francis ◽  
Miriam A. Guevara ◽  
Jacky Lu ◽  
Shabir A. Madhi ◽  
Gaurav Kwatra ◽  

Abstract Background Streptococcus agalactiae or Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an encapsulated gram-positive bacterial pathobiont that commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal tract and reproductive tract of human hosts. This bacterium can infect the gravid reproductive tract and cause invasive infections of pregnant patients and neonates. Upon colonizing the reproductive tract, the bacterial cell is presented with numerous nutritional challenges imposed by the host. One strategy employed by the host innate immune system is intoxication of bacterial invaders with certain transition metals such as zinc. Methodology Previous work has demonstrated that GBS must employ elegant strategies to circumnavigate zinc stress in order to survive in the vertebrate host. We assessed 30 strains of GBS from diverse isolation sources, capsular serotypes, and sequence types for susceptibility or resistance to zinc intoxication. Results Invasive strains, such as those isolated from early onset disease manifestations of GBS infection were significantly less susceptible to zinc toxicity than colonizing strains isolated from rectovaginal swabs of pregnant patients. Additionally, capsular type III (cpsIII) strains and the ST-17 and ST-19 strains exhibited the greatest resilience to zinc stress, whereas ST-1 and ST-12 strains as well as those possessing capsular type Ib (cpsIb) were more sensitive to zinc intoxication. Thus, this study demonstrates that the transition metal zinc possesses antimicrobial properties against a wide range of GBS strains, with isolation source, capsular serotype, and sequence type contributing to susceptibility or resistance to zinc stress.

2022 ◽  

Abstract Hungarian fruit vinegars were characterised in terms of physicochemical attributes (total polyphenol content, antioxidant characteristics/FRAP, CUPRAC, ABTS/, ascorbic acid content, pH, total soluble solids), sensory profiles, and antimicrobial properties. Both compositional and sensory profiles showed distinct patterns depending on the type of vinegar (Tokaj wine, balsamic or apple) and the additional fruit used. Balsamic vinegars maturated on rosehip, sea buckthorn, and raspberry showed outstanding antioxidant performances. Rosehip, raspberry, and quince vinegars, as well as vinegars produced from Tokaji aszú and balsamic apple obtained high scores for fruity and sweet notes. Antimicrobial activities were tested on Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms, including probiotic bacteria. Generally, only weak activities were obtained, which was attributed to the natural sugar content of the samples, depending on the type of the vinegar and the fruit. Similar results, but more pronounced bacterial growth inhibitions were obtained for probiotic strains, however, some probiotic strains were resistant to at least two of the vinegars. Based on these, balsamic apple, raspberry, rosehip, quince, and sea buckthorn may qualify as potential functional components of probiotic preparations containing some of the strains tested.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089686082110641
Ying Ma ◽  
Yingzhou Geng ◽  
Li Jin ◽  
Xiaopei Wang ◽  
Changna Liang ◽  

Background: The role of monitoring serum vancomycin levels during treatment of peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis is controversial. Substantial inter-individual variability may result in suboptimal serum levels despite similar dosing of vancomycin. The published predictors of suboptimal serum vancomycin levels remain limited. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected from 541 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis between 1 January 2018 and 31 December 312019. For gram-positive cocci and culture-negative peritonitis, we adopted a vancomycin administration and monitoring protocol. Short-term adverse outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis, including transfer to haemodialysis, death, persistent infection beyond planned therapy duration and relapse, were observed. The association between trough serum vancomycin levels and short-term adverse outcomes was evaluated. Results: Intraperitoneal vancomycin was used in 61 gram-positive cocci or culture-negative peritonitis episodes in 56 patients. Fourteen episodes of short-term adverse outcomes occurred in 12 patients, whose average trough serum vancomycin levels on day 5 of treatment were significantly lower than those who didn’t experience any adverse outcomes (8.4 ± 1.7 vs 12.5 ± 4.3 mg/L, p = 0.003). In gram-positive cocci or culture-negative peritonitis patients, those with higher day 5 trough serum vancomycin levels had a lower risk of short-term adverse outcomes (odds ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.4 to 0.9, p = 0.011). Receiver operating charecteristic curve (ROC) analyses showed that the day 5 trough serum vancomycin levels diagnostic threshold value for short-term adverse outcomes was 10.1 mg/L. After adjustments for gender, exchange volume and residual kidney function (RKF), baseline higher peritoneal transport was associated with a suboptimal (<10.1 mg/L) day 5 serum vancomycin level. Conclusions: Serum vancomycin levels are correlated with short-term adverse outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis, and higher peritoneal solute transport status is associated with suboptimal trough serum vancomycin levels on day 5.

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