respiratory rate
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2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 110578
Linda M. Posthuma ◽  
Maarten J. Visscher ◽  
Dave A. Dongelmans ◽  
Estaban N. Jessurun ◽  
Ilse J.A. Wissink ◽  

2022 ◽  
Blanca Ayuso ◽  
Antonio Lalueza ◽  
Estibaliz Arrieta ◽  
Eva Maria Romay ◽  
Álvaro Marchán-López ◽  

Abstract BACKGROUND: Influenza viruses cause seasonal epidemics worldwide with a significant morbimortality burden. Clinical spectrum of Influenza is wide, being respiratory failure (RF) one of its most severe complications. This study aims to elaborate a clinical prediction rule of RF in hospitalized Influenza patients.METHODS: a prospective cohort study was conducted during two consecutive Influenza seasons (December 2016 - March 2017 and December 2017 - April 2018) including hospitalized adults with confirmed A or B Influenza infection. A prediction rule was derived using logistic regression and recursive partitioning, followed by internal cross-validation. External validation was performed on a retrospective cohort in a different hospital between December 2018 - May 2019. RESULTS: Overall, 707 patients were included in the derivation cohort and 285 in the validation cohort. RF rate was 6.8% and 11.6%, respectively. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppression, radiological abnormalities, respiratory rate, lymphopenia, lactate dehydrogenase and C-reactive protein at admission were associated with RF. A four category-grouped seven point-score was derived including radiological abnormalities, lymphopenia, respiratory rate and lactate dehydrogenase. Final model area under the curve was 0.796 (0.714-0.877) in the derivation cohort and 0.773 (0.687-0.859) in the validation cohort (p<0.001 in both cases). The predicted model showed an adequate fit with the observed results (Fisher’s test p>0.43). CONCLUSION: we present a simple, discriminating, well-calibrated rule for an early prediction of the development of RF in hospitalized Influenza patients, with proper performance in an external validation cohort. This tool can be helpful in patient´s stratification during seasonal Influenza epidemics.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
João Jorge ◽  
Mauricio Villarroel ◽  
Hamish Tomlinson ◽  
Oliver Gibson ◽  
Julie L. Darbyshire ◽  

AbstractProlonged non-contact camera-based monitoring in critically ill patients presents unique challenges, but may facilitate safe recovery. A study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of introducing a non-contact video camera monitoring system into an acute clinical setting. We assessed the accuracy and robustness of the video camera-derived estimates of the vital signs against the electronically-recorded reference values in both day and night environments. We demonstrated non-contact monitoring of heart rate and respiratory rate for extended periods of time in 15 post-operative patients. Across day and night, heart rate was estimated for up to 53.2% (103.0 h) of the total valid camera data with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 2.5 beats/min in comparison to two reference sensors. We obtained respiratory rate estimates for 63.1% (119.8 h) of the total valid camera data with a MAE of 2.4 breaths/min against the reference value computed from the chest impedance pneumogram. Non-contact estimates detected relevant changes in the vital-sign values between routine clinical observations. Pivotal respiratory events in a post-operative patient could be identified from the analysis of video-derived respiratory information. Continuous vital-sign monitoring supported by non-contact video camera estimates could be used to track early signs of physiological deterioration during post-operative care.

2022 ◽  
Amal Francis Sam ◽  
Anil Yogendra Yadav

Conventionally, oxygen is given at 4 to 6 L/min through nasal cannula for supplementation of oxygen. The FiO2 achieved through this can be up to 0.4. Flows more than this can cause dryness to the nasal mucosa without much increase in the FiO2. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) uses flow up to 60 L/min. Positive end-expiratory pressure is created in the nasopharynx and it is also conducted to the lower airways. Studies have shown HFNC improves washout of CO2 and decreases respiratory rate. Patient compliance also improves due to the comfort of the cannula compared to the non-invasive ventilation through a mask.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 342
Sejoong Ahn ◽  
Jonghak Park ◽  
Juhyun Song ◽  
Jooyeong Kim ◽  
Hanjin Cho ◽  

Detecting sepsis patients who are at a high-risk of mechanical ventilation is important in emergency departments (ED). The respiratory rate oxygenation (ROX) index is the ratio of tissue oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen to the respiratory rate. This study aimed to investigate whether the ROX index could predict mechanical ventilator use in sepsis patients in an ED. This retrospective observational study included quick sequential organ failure assessment (qSOFA) ≥ 2 sepsis patients that presented to the ED between September 2019 and April 2020. The ROX and ROX-heart rate (HR) indices were significantly lower in patients with mechanical ventilator use within 24 h than in those without the use of a mechanical ventilator (4.0 [3.2–5.4] vs. 10.0 [5.9–15.2], p < 0.001 and 3.9 [2.7–5.8] vs. 10.1 [5.4–16.3], p < 0.001, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the ROX and ROX-HR indices were 0.854 and 0.816 (both p < 0.001). The ROX and ROX-HR indices were independently associated with mechanical ventilator use within 24 h (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68–0.90, p < 0.001 and adjusted hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79–0.96, p = 0.004, respectively). The 28-day mortality was higher in the low ROX and low ROX-HR groups. The ROX and ROX-HR indices were associated with mechanical ventilator use within 24 h in qSOFA ≥ 2 patients in the ED.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-02
Drew Johnson

A 25-year-old man with a past medical history of type 1 diabetes presented to the emergency department with 2 days of progressive abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting after stopping insulin. His heart rate was 125 and the respiratory rate was 26. The glucose was 832 mg/dl, the potassium was 6.6 mmol/L, the beta-hydroxybutyrate was 111.8 mg/dl, and the pH was 6.95.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Sarika K. L. Hogendoorn ◽  
Loïc Lhopitallier ◽  
Melissa Richard-Greenblatt ◽  
Estelle Tenisch ◽  
Zainab Mbarack ◽  

Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotics use in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) is a major contributor to resistance. We aimed to design an algorithm based on clinical signs and host biomarkers to identify bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among patients with LRTI. Methods Participants with LRTI were selected in a prospective cohort of febrile (≥ 38 °C) adults presenting to outpatient clinics in Dar es Salaam. Participants underwent chest X-ray, multiplex PCR for respiratory pathogens, and measurements of 13 biomarkers. We evaluated the predictive accuracy of clinical signs and biomarkers using logistic regression and classification and regression tree analysis. Results Of 110 patients with LRTI, 17 had bacterial CAP. Procalcitonin (PCT), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble triggering receptor expressed by myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1) showed an excellent predictive accuracy to identify bacterial CAP (AUROC 0.88, 95%CI 0.78–0.98; 0.84, 0.72–0.99; 0.83, 0.74–0.92, respectively). Combining respiratory rate with PCT or IL-6 significantly improved the model compared to respiratory rate alone (p = 0.006, p = 0.033, respectively). An algorithm with respiratory rate (≥ 32/min) and PCT (≥ 0.25 μg/L) had 94% sensitivity and 82% specificity. Conclusions PCT, IL-6 and sTREM-1 had an excellent predictive accuracy in differentiating bacterial CAP from other LRTIs. An algorithm combining respiratory rate and PCT displayed even better performance in this sub-Sahara African setting.

2022 ◽  
pp. 129-143
Catalina Luca ◽  
Doru Andritoi ◽  
Calin Corciova

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Catherine Muthoni Njeru ◽  
J. Mark Ansermino ◽  
William M. Macharia ◽  
Dustin T. Dunsmuir

Abstract Background Respiratory rate is difficult to measure, especially in neonates who have an irregular breathing pattern. The World Health Organisation recommends a one-minute count, but there is limited data to support this length of observation. We sought to evaluate agreement between the respiratory rate (RR) derived from capnography in neonates, over 15 s, 30 s, 120 s and 300 s, against the recommended 60 s. Methods Neonates at two hospitals in Nairobi were recruited and had capnograph waveforms recorded using the Masimo Rad 97. A single high quality 5 min epoch was randomly chosen from each subject. For each selected epoch, the mean RR was calculated using a breath-detection algorithm applied to the waveform. The RR in the first 60 s was compared to the mean RR measured over the first 15 s, 30 s, 120 s, full 300 s, and last 60 s. We calculated bias and limits of agreement for each comparison and used Bland-Altman plots for visual comparisons. Results A total of 306 capnographs were analysed from individual subjects. The subjects had a median gestation age of 39 weeks with slightly more females (52.3%) than males (47.7%). The majority of the population were term neonates (70.1%) with 39 (12.8%) having a primary respiratory pathology. There was poor agreement between all the comparisons based on the limits of agreement [confidence interval], ranging between 11.9 [− 6.79 to 6.23] breaths per minute in the one versus 2 min comparison, and 34.7 [− 17.59 to 20.53] breaths per minute in the first versus last minute comparison. Worsening agreement was observed in plots with higher RRs. Conclusions Neonates have high variability of RR, even over a short period of time. A slight degradation in the agreement is noted over periods shorter than 1 min. However, this is smaller than observations done 3 min apart in the same subject. Longer periods of observation also reduce agreement. For device developers, precise synchronization is needed when comparing devices to reduce the impact of RR variation. For clinicians, where possible, continuous or repeated monitoring of neonates would be preferable to one time RR measurements.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (4) ◽  
Simone Marques Caramalac ◽  
Andreza Futado de Souza ◽  
Silvana Marques Caramalac ◽  
Verônica Batista de Albuquerque ◽  
Lucas Bezerra da Silva Azuaga ◽  

ABSTRACT: Anesthetic protocols have been developed to obtain the most effective and safe association in wildlife. This study compared the anesthetic effects and cardiorespiratory parameters of ketamine-S (+) (10 mg/kg)/dexmedetomidine (0.020 mg/kg) (KD ) and ketamine-S (+) (10 mg/kg)/midazolam (0.5 mg/kg)/methadone (1.0 mg/kg) (KMM ) in capuchin monkeys (Sapajus apella). Eight capuchin monkeys were randomly assigned to KD (n = 4) or KMM (n = 4) to evaluate induction, immobilization, and recovery scores, heart and respiratory rate parameters, besides systolic, mean, diastolic arterial pressure and arterial blood gas. There was no difference (P = 0.56) in the quality of induction, immobilization, and anesthetic recovery between the protocols. The time for anesthetic induction was 4 ± 1 min in the KD group and 5 ± 1 min in the KMM group, and these values were statistically equal (P = 0.28). The mean immobilization time in the KD and KMM groups were 35 ± 13 and 33 ± 15 min, respectively. Heart rate was lower in animals in the KD group (P < 0.001), while respiratory rate (P = 0.03), and mean blood pressure (P = 0.046) were higher than that of the animals in the KMM group. Respiratory acidosis occurred in the KMM group, with lower pH (7.25±0.047; P = 0.0055) and higher pCO2 (51 ± 6;mmHg; P = 0.008). Both protocols exhibited good induction quality, immobilization, and anesthetic recovery, despite cardiorespiratory and blood gas alterations observed, which warrants monitoring of cardiorespiratory variables during KD or KMM chemical restraint.

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