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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Stuti Bahl ◽  
Neeta Dhabhai ◽  
Sunita Taneja ◽  
Pratima Mittal ◽  
Rupali Dewan ◽  
...  

Abstract Background The burden of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) appears to be increasing in India and may be related to the double burden of malnutrition. The population-based incidence and risk factors of GDM, particularly in lower socio-economic populations, are not known. We conducted analyses on data from a population-based cohort of pregnant women in South Delhi, India, to determine the incidence of GDM, its risk factors and association with adverse pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, preterm birth, large for gestational age babies) and need for caesarean section. Methods We analyzed data from the intervention group of the Women and Infants Integrated Interventions for Growth Study (WINGS), an individually randomized factorial design trial. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at the time of confirmation of pregnancy, and for those who had a normal test (≤140 mg), it was repeated at 24–28 and at 34–36 weeks. Logistic regression was performed to ascertain risk factors associated with GDM. Risk ratios (RR) were calculated to find association between GDM and adverse pregnancy outcomes and need for caesarean section. Results 19.2% (95% CI: 17.6 to 20.9) pregnant women who had at least one OGTT were diagnosed to have GDM. Women who had prediabetes at the time of confirmation of pregnancy had a significantly higher risk of developing GDM (RR 2.08, 95%CI 1.45 to 2.97). Other risk factors independently associated with GDM were woman’s age (adjusted OR (AOR) 1.10, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.15) and BMI (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07). Higher maternal height was found to be protective factor for GDM (AOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.00). Women with GDM, received appropriate treatment did not have an increase in adverse outcomes and no increased need for caesarean section Conclusions A substantial proportion of pregnant women from a low to mid socio-economic population in Delhi had GDM, with older age, higher BMI and pre-diabetes as important risk factors. These findings highlight the need for interventions for prevention and provision of appropriate management of GDM in antenatal programmes. Clinical trial registration Clinical Trial Registry – India, #CTRI/2017/06/008908 (http://ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/pmaindet2.php?trialid=19339&EncHid=&userName=society%20for%20applied%20studies).


Author(s):  
Duong Duc Pham ◽  
Jaekyung Song ◽  
Yunwan Jeon ◽  
Ibrahimi Hajar ◽  
Chae Hun Leem

Abstract Context Impact of baseline and alteration of metabolic parameters (MPs), including plasma glucose (PGs) testing, insulin resistance surrogates, and lipid profile and their mutual interactions on the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has not been investigated systematically. Objective To access the association of the past variability (V), past mean (M), and the baseline (B) values of various MPs and their mutual interaction with the risk of T2DM. Design Longitudinal analysis from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Setting Community-based Participants 3829 non-diabetic participants with completed MPs measurements during three biannually visits were followed up over the next 10 years. Outcomes Incidence of T2DM during the follow up. Results Among predictors, PG concentrations measured during the oral glucose tolerance test were the most prominent T2DM determinants, in which the M of the average value of fasting PG, 1-h, and 2-h PGs had the strongest discriminative power (hazard ratios and 95% CI for an increment of SD: 3.00 (2.5–3.26), AUC: 0.82). The M values of MPs were superior to their B and V values in predicting T2DM, especially among post-load PGs. Various mutual interactions between indices and among MPs were found. The most consistent interactants were the M values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the M and V values of fasting PG. The findings were similar in normal tolerance glucose participants and were confirmed by sensitivity analyses. Conclusion The post-load PGs, past alteration of measurements, and mutual interactions among indices of MPs are important risk factors for T2DM development.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 384
Author(s):  
Ilona Juchnicka ◽  
Mariusz Kuźmicki ◽  
Piotr Zabielski ◽  
Adam Krętowski ◽  
Agnieszka Błachnio-Zabielska ◽  
...  

We hypothesized that sphingolipids may be early biomarkers of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Here, 520 women with normal fasting plasma glucose levels were recruited in the first trimester and tested with a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test in the 24th–28th week of pregnancy. Serum sphingolipids concentrations were measured in the first and the second trimester by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) in 53 patients who were diagnosed with GDM, as well as 82 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 32 non-pregnant women. In the first trimester, pregnant women showed higher concentrations of C16:0, C18:1, C22:0, C24:1, and C24:0-Cer and lower levels of sphinganine (SPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) compared to non-pregnant women. During pregnancy, we observed significant changes in C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C24:1-Cer levels in the GDM group and C18:1 and C24:0-Cer in NGT. The GDM (pre-conversion) and NGT groups in the first trimester differed solely in the levels of C18:1-Cer (AUC = 0.702 p = 0.008), also considering glycemia. Thus, C18:1-Cer revealed its potential as a GDM biomarker. Sphingolipids are known to be a modulator of insulin resistance, and our results indicate that ceramide measurements in early pregnancy may help with GDM screening.


Author(s):  
Caitlin E. Malik ◽  
David M. Wong ◽  
Katarzyna A. Dembek ◽  
Katherine E. Wilson

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine the accuracy of 2 interstitial glucose-monitoring systems (GMSs) for use in horses compared with a point-of-care (POC) glucometer and standard laboratory enzymatic chemistry method (CHEM). ANIMALS 8 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES One of each GMS device (Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day) was placed on each horse, and blood glucose concentration was measured via POC and CHEM at 33 time points and compared with simultaneous GMS readings. An oral glucose absorption test (OGAT) was performed on day 2, and glucose concentrations were measured and compared. RESULTS Glucose concentrations were significantly correlated with one another between all devices on days 1 to 5. Acceptable agreement was observed between Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day when compared with CHEM on days 1, 3, 4, and 5 with a combined mean bias of 10.45 mg/dL and 1.53 mg/dL, respectively. During dextrose-induced hyperglycemia on day 2, mean bias values for Dexcom G6 (10.49 mg/dL) and FreeStyle Libre 14-day (0.34 mg/dL) showed good agreement with CHEM. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Serial blood glucose measurements are used to diagnose or monitor a variety of conditions in equine medicine; advances in near-continuous interstitial glucose monitoring allow for minimally invasive glucose assessment, thereby reducing stress and discomfort to patients. Data from this study support the use of the Dexcom G6 and Freestyle Libre 14-day interstitial glucose-monitoring systems to estimate blood glucose concentrations in horses.


Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 311
Author(s):  
Gabriele Brosolo ◽  
Andrea Da Porto ◽  
Luca Bulfone ◽  
Laura Scandolin ◽  
Antonio Vacca ◽  
...  

Recent evidence indicates that mildly increased fasting and post-oral load blood glucose concentrations contribute to development of organ damage in nondiabetic patients with hypertension. In previous studies, vitamin D deficiency was associated with decreased glucose tolerance. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between serum 25(OH)D levels and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in hypertension. In 187 nondiabetic essential hypertensive patients free of cardiovascular or renal complications, we measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) and performed a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Patients with 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency were older and had significantly higher blood pressure, fasting and post-OGTT (G-AUC) glucose levels, post-OGTT insulin (I-AUC), PTH levels, and prevalence of metabolic syndrome than patients with normal serum 25(OH)D. 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with age, blood pressure, fasting glucose, G-AUC, triglycerides, and serum calcium and PTH, while no significant relationships were found with body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, I-AUC, HOMA index, and renal function. In a multivariate regression model, greater G-AUC was associated with lower 25(OH)D levels independently of BMI and seasonal vitamin D variations. Thus, in nondiabetic hypertensive patients, 25(OH)D deficiency/insufficiency could contribute to impaired glucose tolerance without directly affecting insulin sensitivity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

<strong>Objective: </strong>We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin-receptor-1-b gene (<i>MTNR1B</i>).<strong> </strong> <p><strong>Research Design and Methods:</strong> In a Spanish natural late eating population, a randomized, cross-over study design was performed, following an 8-h fast. Each participant <strong>(n=845) </strong>underwent two evening 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): an early condition scheduled 4 hours prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“early dinner-timing”)</strong>, and a late condition scheduled 1 hour prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“late dinner-timing”)</strong>, simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively.<strong> </strong>Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method between <strong>early and late dinner-timing.</strong><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <strong>Melatonin serum levels were </strong>3.5-fold <strong>higher in the late <i>vs. </i>early condition, with late dinner-timing resulting in </strong>6.7% <strong>lower insulin</strong> <strong>area-under-the-curve (AUC) and </strong>8.3%<strong> higher glucose</strong> <strong>AUC. In the late condition<i> MTNR1B</i> G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than non-carriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in </strong>β-cell <strong>function (<i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>AUCgluc=0.009, <i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>CIR=0.022, <i>P<sub>int </sub></i>DI=0.018).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> <strong>Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impair glucose tolerance, especially in <i>MTNR1B</i> G-risk-allele carriers<i>, </i>attributable to insulin secretion defects.</strong></p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Garaulet ◽  
Jesus Lopez-Minguez ◽  
Hassan S Dashti ◽  
Céline Vetter ◽  
Antonio Miguel Hernández-Martínez ◽  
...  

<strong>Objective: </strong>We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin-receptor-1-b gene (<i>MTNR1B</i>).<strong> </strong> <p><strong>Research Design and Methods:</strong> In a Spanish natural late eating population, a randomized, cross-over study design was performed, following an 8-h fast. Each participant <strong>(n=845) </strong>underwent two evening 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT): an early condition scheduled 4 hours prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“early dinner-timing”)</strong>, and a late condition scheduled 1 hour prior to habitual bedtime <strong>(“late dinner-timing”)</strong>, simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively.<strong> </strong>Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responses were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method between <strong>early and late dinner-timing.</strong><strong></strong></p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> <strong>Melatonin serum levels were </strong>3.5-fold <strong>higher in the late <i>vs. </i>early condition, with late dinner-timing resulting in </strong>6.7% <strong>lower insulin</strong> <strong>area-under-the-curve (AUC) and </strong>8.3%<strong> higher glucose</strong> <strong>AUC. In the late condition<i> MTNR1B</i> G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than non-carriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in </strong>β-cell <strong>function (<i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>AUCgluc=0.009, <i>P<sub>int</sub></i><sub> </sub>CIR=0.022, <i>P<sub>int </sub></i>DI=0.018).</strong></p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> <strong>Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impair glucose tolerance, especially in <i>MTNR1B</i> G-risk-allele carriers<i>, </i>attributable to insulin secretion defects.</strong></p>


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Helen C. Looker ◽  
Laura Pyle ◽  
Tim Vigers ◽  
Cameron Severn ◽  
Pierre Saulnier ◽  
...  

<b>Objective: </b>Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a leading cause of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) worldwide. Recent studies suggest a more aggressive clinical course of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in youth-onset than adult-onset T2D. We compared kidney structural lesions in youth- and adult-onset T2D to determine if youth-onset was associated with greater early tissue injury.<b></b> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Methods: </b>Quantitative microscopy was performed on kidney tissue obtained from research kidney biopsies in 161 Pima Indians (117 women, 44 men) with T2D. Onset of T2D was established by serial oral glucose tolerance testing and participants were stratified as youth-onset (<25 years) or adult-onset (≥25 years). Associations between clinical and morphometric parameters and age of onset were tested using linear models.<b></b></p> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Results: </b>At biopsy, the 52 participants with youth-onset T2D were younger than the 109 with adult-onset T2D (39.1±9.9 <i>vs.</i> 51.4±10.2 years, <i>p</i><0.0001), but their diabetes duration was similar (19.3±8.1 <i>vs.</i> 17.0±7.8 years, <i>p</i>=0.09). Median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was higher in the youth-onset group (58 [25<sup>th</sup>-75<sup>th</sup> percentile, 17-470] <i>vs.</i> 27 [13-73] mg/g, <i>p</i>=0.02). Youth-onset participants had greater glomerular basement membrane (GBM) width (552±128 nm <i>vs.</i> 490±114nm, <i>p</i>=0.002) and mesangial fractional volume (0.31±0.10 <i>vs</i>. 0.27±0.08, <i>p</i>=0.001) than adult-onset participants. Percentage glomerular sclerosis, glomerular volume, mesangial fractional volume, and GBM width were also inversely associated with age of diabetes onset as a continuous variable.<b></b></p> <p><b> </b></p> <p><b>Conclusion: </b>Younger age of T2D onset strongly associates with more severe kidney structural lesions. Studies are underway to elucidate the pathways underlying these associations.</p>


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Wook Yi ◽  
Keunyoung Kim ◽  
Myungsoo Im ◽  
Soree Ryang ◽  
Eun Heui Kim ◽  
...  

AbstractWe evaluated the associations between metabolic parameters with visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in women with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and we compared the VAT volume with the VAT area. We enrolled women aged > 20 years with prediabetes or T2DM, who underwent oral glucose tolerance test and whose VAT was evaluated using computed tomography (CT) at our institution between 2017 and 2019. All participants underwent unenhanced spiral CT with a 3-mm slice thickness from the level of the diaphragm to the level of the mid-thigh. The two VAT areas were defined as the free drawn area on the levels of the umbilicus and L2 vertebra. The VAT areas were also manually drawn from the level of the diaphragm to the level of the pelvic floor and were used to calculate the VAT volumes by summing all areas with a slice thickness of 3 mm after setting the attenuation values from −45 to −195 Hounsfield Unit. All metabolic characteristics, except blood pressure, were significantly correlated with the VAT volume. The VAT areas measured at the level of the L2 vertebra and umbilicus were correlated with serum triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and Framingham steatosis index alone. Multivariable regression analyses revealed that the VAT volume was significantly associated with several metabolic parameters. In conclusion, in women with prediabetes and T2DM, the VAT volume acquired from CT-based calculation has more significant correlations with metabolic risk factors compared with the VAT area.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Armin Ahmadi ◽  
M. Nazmul Huda ◽  
Brian Bennett ◽  
Jorge Gamboa ◽  
Leila R. Zelnick ◽  
...  

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), a major public health problem, is associated with decreased anabolic response to insulin contributing to protein-energy wasting. Targeted metabolic profiling of the response to oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) may help identify metabolic pathways contributing to disruptions to insulin response in CKD. Using targeted metabolic profiling, we examined plasma metabolome in 41 moderate-to-severe non-diabetic CKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60ml/min per 1.73m2 (38.9+-12.7) and 20 healthy controls with normal eGFR (87.2+-17.7) before and after 2h of 75g oral glucose load. Compared to controls, CKD participants had higher lactate: pyruvate (L:P) ratio both at fasting and after oral glucose challenge. Total energy production estimated through GTP:GDP ratio was impaired during OGTT despite similar fasting GTP:GDP ratio. CKD group had sustained elevation of vitamin B family members, TCA cycle metabolites, and purine nucleotides in response to glucose challenge. Metabolic profiling in response to OGTT suggests a broad disruption of mitochondrial energy metabolism in CKD patients. These findings motivate further investigation into insulin sensitizers in patients with non-diabetic CKD and their impact on energy metabolism.


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