novel mutation
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
T. Batool ◽  
S. Irshad ◽  
K. Mahmood

Abstract Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a congenitally reduced head circumference (-3 to -5 SD) and non-progressive intellectual disability. The objective of the study was to evaluate pathogenic mutations in the ASPM gene to understand etiology and molecular mechanism of primary microcephaly. Blood samples were collected from various families across different remote areas of Pakistan from February 2017 to May 2019 who were identified to be affected with primary microcephaly. DNA extraction was performed using the salting-out method; the quality and quantity of DNA were evaluated using spectrophotometry and 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, respectively in University of the Punjab. Mutation analysis was performed by whole exome sequencing from the Cologne Center for Genomics, University of Cologne. Sanger sequencing was done in University of the Punjab to confirm the pathogenic nature of mutation. A novel 4-bp deletion mutation c.3877_3880delGAGA was detected in exon 17 of the ASPM gene in two primary microcephaly affected families (A and B), which resulted in a frame shift mutation in the gene followed by truncated protein synthesis (p.Glu1293Lysfs*10), as well as the loss of the calmodulin-binding IQ domain and the Armadillo-like domain in the ASPM protein. Using the in-silico tools Mutation Taster, PROVEAN, and PolyPhen, the pathogenic effect of this novel mutation was tested; it was predicted to be “disease causing,” with high pathogenicity scores. One previously reported mutation in exon 24 (c.9730C>T) of the ASPM gene resulting in protein truncation (p.Arg3244*) was also observed in family C. Mutations in the ASPM gene are the most common cause of MCPH in most cases. Therefore, enrolling additional affected families from remote areas of Pakistan would help in identifying or mapping novel mutations in the ASPM gene of primary microcephaly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-52
Man Zhang ◽  
Andrea Arcuri

REST web services are widely popular in industry, and search techniques have been successfully used to automatically generate system-level test cases for those systems. In this article, we propose a novel mutation operator which is designed specifically for test generation at system-level, with a particular focus on REST APIs. In REST API testing, and often in system testing in general, an individual can have a long and complex chromosome. Furthermore, there are two specific issues: (1) fitness evaluation in system testing is highly costly compared with the number of objectives (e.g., testing targets) to optimize for; and (2) a large part of the genotype might have no impact on the phenotype of the individuals (e.g., input data that has no impact on the execution flow in the tested program). Due to these issues, it might be not suitable to apply a typical low mutation rate like 1/ n (where n is the number of genes in an individual), which would lead to mutating only one gene on average. Therefore, in this article, we propose an adaptive weight-based hypermutation, which is aware of the different characteristics of the mutated genes. We developed adaptive strategies that enable the selection and mutation of genes adaptively based on their fitness impact and mutation history throughout the search. To assess our novel proposed mutation operator, we implemented it in the EvoMaster tool, integrated in the MIO algorithm, and further conducted an empirical study with three artificial REST APIs and four real-world REST APIs. Results show that our novel mutation operator demonstrates noticeable improvements over the default MIO. It provides a significant improvement in performance for six out of the seven case studies, where the relative improvement is up to +12.09% for target coverage, +12.69% for line coverage, and +32.51% for branch coverage.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 147
Adrián Gonzalo

Newly formed polyploids often show extensive meiotic defects, resulting in aneuploid gametes, and thus reduced fertility. However, while many neopolyploids are meiotically unstable, polyploid lineages that survive in nature are generally stable and fertile; thus, those lineages that survive are those that are able to overcome these challenges. Several genes that promote polyploid stabilization are now known in plants, allowing speculation on the evolutionary origin of these meiotic adjustments. Here, I discuss results that show that meiotic stability can be achieved through the differentiation of certain alleles of certain genes between ploidies. These alleles, at least sometimes, seem to arise by novel mutation, while standing variation in either ancestral diploids or related polyploids, from which alleles can introgress, may also contribute. Growing evidence also suggests that the coevolution of multiple interacting genes has contributed to polyploid stabilization, and in allopolyploids, the return of duplicated genes to single copies (genome fractionation) may also play a role in meiotic stabilization. There is also some evidence that epigenetic regulation may be important, which can help explain why some polyploid lineages can partly stabilize quite rapidly.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yu Yao ◽  
Dongxiao Qu ◽  
Xiaoping Jing ◽  
Yuxiang Jia ◽  
Qi Zhong ◽  

The gene kcnma1 encodes the α-subunit of high-conductance calcium- and voltage-dependent K+ (BK) potassium channel. With the development of generation gene sequencing technology, many KCNMA1 mutants have been identified and are more closely related to generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia. Here, we performed a genetic screen of 26 patients with febrile seizures and identified a novel mutation of KCNMA1 (E155Q). Electrophysiological characterization of different KCNMA1 mutants in HEK 293T cells, the previously-reported R458T and E884K variants (not yet determined), as well as the newly-found E155Q variant, revealed that the current density amplitude of all the above variants was significantly smaller than that of the wild-type (WT) channel. All the above variants caused a positive shift of the I-V curve and played a role through the loss-of-function (LOF) mechanism. Moreover, the β4 subunit slowed down the activation of the E155Q mutant. Then, we used kcnma1 knockout (BK KO) mice as the overall animal model of LOF mutants. It was found that BK KO mice had spontaneous epilepsy, motor impairment, autophagic dysfunction, abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, as well as possible anxiety and cognitive impairment. In addition, we performed transcriptomic analysis on the hippocampus and cortex of BK KO and WT mice. We identified many differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Eight dysregulated genes [i.e., (Gfap and Grm3 associated with astrocyte activation) (Alpl and Nlrp10 associated with neuroinflammation) (Efna5 and Reln associated with epilepsy) (Cdkn1a and Nr4a1 associated with autophagy)] were validated by RT-PCR, which showed a high concordance with transcriptomic analysis. Calcium imaging results suggested that BK might regulate the autophagy pathway from TRPML1. In conclusion, our study indicated that newly-found point E155Q resulted in a novel loss-of-function variant and the dysregulation of gene expression, especially astrocyte activation, neuroinflammation and autophagy, might be the molecular mechanism of BK-LOF meditated epilepsy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Jia-Yi Wei ◽  
Sao-Yu Chu ◽  
Yu-Chien Huang ◽  
Pei-Chi Chung ◽  
Hung-Hsiang Yu

AbstractNeurogenesis in the Drosophila central brain progresses dynamically in order to generate appropriate numbers of neurons during different stages of development. Thus, a central challenge in neurobiology is to reveal the molecular and genetic mechanisms of neurogenesis timing. Here, we found that neurogenesis is significantly impaired when a novel mutation, Nuwa, is induced at early but not late larval stages. Intriguingly, when the Nuwa mutation is induced in neuroblasts of olfactory projection neurons (PNs) at the embryonic stage, embryonic-born PNs are generated, but larval-born PNs of the same origin fail to be produced. Through molecular characterization and transgenic rescue experiments, we determined that Nuwa is a loss-of-function mutation in Drosophila septin interacting protein 1 (sip1). Furthermore, we found that SIP1 expression is enriched in neuroblasts, and RNAi knockdown of sip1 using a neuroblast driver results in formation of small and aberrant brains. Finally, full-length SIP1 protein and truncated SIP1 proteins lacking either the N- or C-terminus display different subcellular localization patterns, and only full-length SIP1 can rescue the Nuwa-associated neurogenesis defect. Taken together, these results suggest that SIP1 acts as a crucial factor for specific neurogenesis programs in the early developing larval brain.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Ulrich Jehn ◽  
Cornelie Müller-Hofstede ◽  
Barbara Heitplatz ◽  
Veerle Van Marck ◽  
Stefan Reuter ◽  

Background. Alport syndrome results from a hereditary defect of collagen IV synthesis. This causes progressive glomerular disease, ocular abnormalities, and inner ear impairment. Case Presentation. Herein, we present a case of Alport syndrome in a 28-year-old woman caused by a novel mutation (Gly1436del) in the COL4A4 gene that was not unveiled until her first pregnancy. Within the 29th pregnancy week, our patient presented with massive proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome. Light microscopic examination of a kidney biopsy showed typical histological features of segmental sclerosis, and electron microscopy revealed extensive podocyte alterations as well as thickness of glomerular basement membranes with splitting of the lamina densa. One and a half years after childbirth, renal function deteriorated to a preterminal stage, whereas nephrotic syndrome subsided quickly after delivery. Conclusion. This case report highlights the awareness of atypical AS courses and emphasizes the importance of genetic testing in such cases.

Ivaine Tais Sauthier Sartor ◽  
Fernanda Hammes Varela ◽  
Mariana Rost Meireles ◽  
Luciane Beatriz Kern ◽  
Thaís Raupp Azevedo ◽  

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