programmed death 1
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Liting Zhong ◽  
Xiaoyu Liu ◽  
Zelei Li ◽  
Xuebing Zhang ◽  
Yuli Wang ◽  

Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) with proficient mismatch repair (pMMR)/microsatellite stable (MSS) is associated with limited response to programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor monotherapy. Limited data of PD-1 blockade combined with anti-angiogenic therapy in GBC are reported. One recurrent GBC patient with pMMR/MSS was treated with camrelizumab plus apatinib. After 4 cycles of combination therapy, the patient achieved a durable complete response with manageable toxicity. The next-generation sequencing and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that tumor mutation burden (TMB) was 7.26 mutants/Mb and PD-L1 expression was 10% (tumor proportion score) and 20% (immune proportion score). This case suggests that camrelizumab in combination with apatinib may be an effective treatment option for GBC patients with pMMR/MSS status, who have moderate expression of TMB and PD-L1. Additionally, TMB and PD-L1 expression may serve as potential biomarkers for predicting PD-1 inhibitor response of GBC. Furthermore, this needs to be verified in future studies.

BMC Genomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Ping Liu ◽  
Ruoxu Chen ◽  
Xudong Zhang ◽  
Ruiting Fu ◽  
Lin Tao ◽  

Abstract Background High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma is highly heterogeneous, and although many studies have been conducted to identify high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma molecular subtypes that are sensitive to immunotherapy, no precise molecular subtype has been proposed to date. Immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoints are highly correlated with immunotherapy. Here, we investigated immune cell infiltration and immune checkpoint values for prognosis and precise immunotherapy for high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma based on molecular subtype classification. Results “High antigen-presenting cells infiltration molecular subtype of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma” was identified in immune cell infiltration profiles. Each of the three immune cell infiltration clusters (A, B, and C) demonstrated distinct immune cell characterization, with immune cell infiltration cluster C exhibiting high antigen-presenting cell infiltration, improved prognosis, and higher sensitivity to immunotherapy. Programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 has a prognostic and predictive role that can help classify molecular subtypes. Conclusions Our findings redefined a unique molecular subtype of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma, suggesting that high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma patients with higher antigen-presenting cell infiltration and programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 expression can benefit from precise immunotherapy.

Zhenyu Liu ◽  
Xueqin Li ◽  
Ningning Fan ◽  
Hong Wang ◽  
Wenli Xia ◽  

Abstract Newly identified PD-1 hiCXCR5 –CD4 + T cells, termed as peripheral helper T cells (Tph), have been found elevated and playing pathogenic role in some autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatic arthritis (RA). However, the potential role of Tph cells in Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) remains unclear. Here, we explored the potential clinical significance of circulating Tph cells in the pathogenesis of AAV. Comparing 32 active AAV patients and 18 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs), we found that the frequency of circulating Tph cells was significantly expanded in active AAV patients. Besides, programmed death 1 (PD-1) expression on the surface of Tph cells was significantly up-regulated in active AAV patients. Importantly, the frequency of circulating Tph cells was greatly decreased in AAV patients after receiving treatment. Tph cells frequency was positively correlated with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and cellular crescent in active AAV patients, but negatively correlated with fibrosus crescent. Tph cells frequency was also positively correlated with naïve B cells, serum concentration of MPO-ANCAs, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-4, IL-21 and IL-12. However, serum IL-10 exhibited negative correlation with circulating Tph cells in active AAV patients. These results demonstrated that circulating Tph cells are greatly expanded in active AAV patients and are positively associated with serum MPO-ANCAs and disease activity, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of AAV.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. e003518
Akie Kimura Yoshikawa ◽  
Kensei Yamaguchi ◽  
Kei Muro ◽  
Atsuo Takashima ◽  
Takashi Ichimura ◽  

BackgroundMatrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) is implicated in protumorigenic processes. Targeting either stromal or epithelial MMP9 reduces the incidence of metastasis. Andecaliximab is a monoclonal antibody that targets MMP9 with high affinity and selectivity. However, no study has examined whether the inhibition of T-cell programmed death 1 (PD-1) in the presence of andecaliximab increases activated lymphocyte infiltration into the tumor, thereby increasing antitumor activity more than that in anti-PD-1 monotherapy. In this study, we assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), exploratory biomarkers, and preliminary efficacy of andecaliximab as monotherapy and in combination with nivolumab in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent gastric or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma.MethodsThis phase 1b study comprised four cohorts enrolling Japanese patients with gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma. This paper concerns cohorts 1 and 4; cohorts 2 and 3 will be reported subsequently. Cohort 1 enrolled patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors (n=8) who received andecaliximab monotherapy (800 mg by intravenous infusion every 2 weeks (Q2W)), and cohort 4 enrolled patients irrespective of their HER2 status (n=10) who received 800 mg of andecaliximab in combination with nivolumab Q2W. Safety, dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), PK, pharmacodynamics, and biomarkers were assessed in both cohorts.ResultsPK of andecaliximab in Japanese patients with gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma was similar to that reported in non-Japanese patients with advanced solid tumors. Andecaliximab monotherapy and in combination with nivolumab demonstrated no DLTs in cohort 1 and 4, respectively. Toxicities were manageable and well tolerated in both cohorts. The median progression-free survival was 1.4 months (90% CI, 0.5 to 5.4) and 4.6 months (90% CI, 0.9 to not reached) in cohorts 1 and 4, respectively. The objective response rate was 50% (90% CI, 22% to 78%) in cohort 4, and in some patients, the combination therapy was effective regardless of the biomarker status.ConclusionsThe andecaliximab–nivolumab combination demonstrated a manageable safety profile and promising clinical activity in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.NCT02862535.

2022 ◽  
Vol Volume 15 ◽  
pp. 199-204
Xiaorong Peng ◽  
Ran Tao ◽  
Ying Chen ◽  
Junwei Su ◽  
Ying Huang ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. molcanther.0561.2021
Peter Georgiev ◽  
Eric S Muise ◽  
Douglas E. Linn ◽  
Marlene C. Hinton ◽  
Yun Wang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Raden Danarto ◽  
Ery Kus Dwianingsih ◽  
Yurisal Akhmad Dany ◽  
Lucky Frannata ◽  
Ibnu Widya Argo ◽  

Abstract Introduction : This study aims to investigate the relationship between IL-4 expression with Apoptosis-associated gene receptors (PD-1, CTLA-4) and Programmed Death-1 Ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) in the microenvironment of prostate cancer tissue.Methods : The samples were collected from single-center hospital in a period from 2014 to 2020. Deparaffinize formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and RNAs extraction by manufacturer’s protocol with slight modification was performed. The RNAs expressions were investigated by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Then we categorize them into 4 groups. The ANOVA test is used to compare mean expression between groups and followed by a correlation test using Pearson test.Result : In the BPH group sample, CTLA-4 had the highest expression level, followed by the expression of IL-4, PD-L2, then PD-1 and PD-L1. The concentration of IL-4 in prostate cancer, both metastatic and non-metastatic, is higher than in BPH, with a p-value of 0.006. the correlation between IL-4 and PD-L1 is the strongest (r=0.919), between IL-4 and PD-L2 comes the second (0.832) and between PD-1 is comes the third (r=0.626).Conclusion : In this study, we find that the expression of IL-4 and Apoptosis-Associated Gene Receptors (PD-1, CTLA-4) and Programmed Death-1 Ligands (PD-L1, PD-L2) in the prostate cancer tissue microenvironment have a significant relationship. In conclusion, it is possible that IL-4 is a promoter of the Immune Escape mechanism in prostate cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sihui Zhu ◽  
Lijuan Bian ◽  
Jia Lv ◽  
Baorui Liu ◽  
Jie Shen

We report a case of non-bacterial cystitis after treatment with programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibodies, which was considered an immune-related adverse event (irAE). A 48-year-old male patient with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) was treated with nivolumab after postoperative multi-line treatment. This patient recurred worsening of psoriasis and repeated urinary tract discomfort. The drug was discontinued and surgery was performed due to the recurrence of the tumor suggested by imaging. After receiving three cycles of chemotherapy treatment combined with atezolizumab, urinary tract discomfort reappeared. No bacteria were found in multiple urine cultures, and non-bacterial bladder inflammation was considered after cystoscopy biopsy. This is a report of non-bacterial inflammation of the urinary tract caused by immunotherapy.

Roufen Chen ◽  
Dandan Yuan ◽  
JunJie Ma

Immunotherapy inhibiting the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) interaction has emerged as one of the most attractive cancer treatment strategies. So far, the clinically used PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies, but monoclonal antibodies have several limitations, such as poor pharmacokinetic properties, unchecked immune responses and high production cost. The development of small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction is showing great promise as a potential alternative or complementary therapeutic approach of monoclonal antibodies. In this article, the authors classify the reported biphenyl small-molecule inhibitors into symmetrical and asymmetrical types based on their structural features and further review their representative inhibitors and biological activities, as well as the binding models for providing insight into further exploration of more potent biphenyl small-molecule inhibitors targeting PD-1/PD-L1 interaction.

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