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2022 ◽  
Vol 154 ◽  
pp. 107127
Amir Ali ◽  
Chunwei Zhang ◽  
Tayyaba Bibi ◽  
Limeng Zhu ◽  
Liyuan Cao ◽  

Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 123017
Giuseppe Toscano ◽  
Vittorio Maceratesi ◽  
Elena Leoni ◽  
Pierluigi Stipa ◽  
Emiliano Laudadio ◽  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
W. Khan ◽  
S. M. H. M. Naqvi ◽  
H. Ul Hassan ◽  
S. Khan ◽  
U. Ullah ◽  

Abstract Seven hundred and twenty four fish specimens were captured from March to September 2016. The materials used in the current study were cast nets, hand nets. Eight cyprinid fish species were studied for their length-weight relationships. Parameter b in the LWR was 3.03, 3.06, 3.02, 2.29, 2.82, 3.43, 2.73 and 2.47 for Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax esocinus, Racoma labiata, Tor putitora, Barilius vagra, Garra gotyla, Puntius ticto and Arassius auratus respectively. Current study is the first attempt on the LWRs of cyprinid species, provide a baseline approach for conservation and /management of local fish fauna of economic importance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-12
Gabriela Aleksić ◽  
Tomislav Cigula ◽  
Suzana Pasanec Preprotić ◽  

The aim of this study was to stress the importance of investigating the prop- erties of preservation enclosure materials in order to identify the ones that are able to protect their contents more efficiently. Since not all information on materials is covered by international standards and technical specifica- tions, nine paper-based materials used for making preservation enclosures (file folders, passepartouts, boxes etc.) were investigated. A selective analysis of the materials' properties was carried out to determine smoothness, water absorptiveness, water wettability, water vapor permeability, tensile strength, folding endurance, bursting strength, puncture strength, as well as loss of bursting strength caused by dry heat and 100% RH. Results obtained from measuring smoothness, water absorptiveness, water wettability and water vapor transmission rate indicate that a material outside of ISO 16245:2009 grammage requirements for making file covers can exhibit more desirable properties than the one that meets multiple standards for storage and preservation. Additionally, results showed that bursting strength of enclosure materials was significantly affected by both extreme microclimate condi- tions. However, 100% RH had affected bursting strength of the investigated materials more than dry heat. The presented procedure proved to be a useful indicator of materials’ properties within the context of heritage collections preservation and storage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 102 ◽  
pp. 103904
Kumud Ashish Singh ◽  
Rohit Rai ◽  
Santhini S. Nair

Felecia Beulah

Abstract: The prefabricated materials used in construction has indeed been hailed amongst the most efficient approaches, there is a difficulty in implementing this process in the construction industry. The article included an outline of the obstacles and factors that influence prefabrication or modular construction in India. The issues of prefabrication and modular construction were investigated through case studies. Prefabricated elements have been demonstrated to be an efficient and efficient approach for improving productivity and the process of construction, as well as assuring the quality of construction & reducing time and cost. However, there are a number of issues with this strategy in practise, including initial high building costs, lack of understanding of the prefabricated method of construction, technical and installation hurdles, and the inability to find prefabrication businesses locally. Because of the nature of the city and also the growing population, the use of such prefabricated materials in the construction of buildings is beneficial. Keywords: Prefabricated construction, Challenges, fabricated elements, Installation hurdles

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 231-249
Eslam Deef-Allah ◽  
Magdy Abdelrahman

Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has been used in asphalt mixes for several years in the United States. However, the interactions between the RAP binder and the virgin asphalt binder (VAB) need further investigations. Thus, the main objective of this study was to explore the rheological and chemical properties of extracted asphalt binders (EABs) from plant, field, and lab mixes. The plant mixes were collected from behind the paver, reheated to the compaction temperature, and compacted in the lab. The field mixes were collected as cores within two weeks after the end of the construction process. The lab mixes were fabricated in the lab using the same materials used in the plant and field mixes. The mixes contained high asphalt binder replacement percentages by RAP, which were greater than 30%. The EABs were treated as rolling thin film oven aged VABs (RTFO AVABs). The rheological properties of EABs and RTFO AVABs were analyzed using temperature sweep, frequency sweep, and multiple stress creep recovery tests. Chemical investigations of EABs and RTFO AVABs were carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The EABs from plant or lab mixes showed higher stiffnesses than EABs from field mixes. This occurred because of the extra heating that was implemented for the plant mixes before the compaction in the lab, which caused more interactions between the RAP binder and VABs. The fabrication mechanism, mixing and short-term aging processes, used in lab mixes caused more interactions between RAP binder and VABs than in the field mixes.

Microbiome ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Kaela K. Amundson ◽  
Mikayla A. Borton ◽  
Rebecca A. Daly ◽  
David W. Hoyt ◽  
Allison Wong ◽  

Abstract Background Microbial colonization of subsurface shales following hydraulic fracturing offers the opportunity to study coupled biotic and abiotic factors that impact microbial persistence in engineered deep subsurface ecosystems. Shale formations underly much of the continental USA and display geographically distinct gradients in temperature and salinity. Complementing studies performed in eastern USA shales that contain brine-like fluids, here we coupled metagenomic and metabolomic approaches to develop the first genome-level insights into ecosystem colonization and microbial community interactions in a lower-salinity, but high-temperature western USA shale formation. Results We collected materials used during the hydraulic fracturing process (i.e., chemicals, drill muds) paired with temporal sampling of water produced from three different hydraulically fractured wells in the STACK (Sooner Trend Anadarko Basin, Canadian and Kingfisher) shale play in OK, USA. Relative to other shale formations, our metagenomic and metabolomic analyses revealed an expanded taxonomic and metabolic diversity of microorganisms that colonize and persist in fractured shales. Importantly, temporal sampling across all three hydraulic fracturing wells traced the degradation of complex polymers from the hydraulic fracturing process to the production and consumption of organic acids that support sulfate- and thiosulfate-reducing bacteria. Furthermore, we identified 5587 viral genomes and linked many of these to the dominant, colonizing microorganisms, demonstrating the key role that viral predation plays in community dynamics within this closed, engineered system. Lastly, top-side audit sampling of different source materials enabled genome-resolved source tracking, revealing the likely sources of many key colonizing and persisting taxa in these ecosystems. Conclusions These findings highlight the importance of resource utilization and resistance to viral predation as key traits that enable specific microbial taxa to persist across fractured shale ecosystems. We also demonstrate the importance of materials used in the hydraulic fracturing process as both a source of persisting shale microorganisms and organic substrates that likely aid in sustaining the microbial community. Moreover, we showed that different physicochemical conditions (i.e., salinity, temperature) can influence the composition and functional potential of persisting microbial communities in shale ecosystems. Together, these results expand our knowledge of microbial life in deep subsurface shales and have important ramifications for management and treatment of microbial biomass in hydraulically fractured wells.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 660
Grzegorz Skotniczny ◽  
Mateusz Kozioł ◽  
Jerzy Korol ◽  
Paweł Poneta

This paper presents an attempt to obtain technically valuable lightweight aggregate produced from a mixture of fluidized bed fly ash and post-mining residues. The motivation to take up this study is a problem with the reasonable utilization of huge amounts of ashes produced by power plants in Poland. The ashes still produced and those stored in heaps amount to a tonnage of millions, and new ways to utilize them are desired. A real lack of mineral aggregates (non-renewable resources) demands the search for alternative materials. Using the industrial ashes as aggregates is a possible solution to the two above-mentioned problems. The aim of the study was to produce the lightweight aggregate components and to assess them in terms of their physical and mechanical properties. The components were prepared by mixing, granulation, and sintering at the temperature of over 1170 °C. Evaluation of physical parameters was based on parameters such as bulk density and water absorption. The study of mechanical properties was carried out on the basis of aggregates’ resistance to crushing. The obtained results revealed that using a mixture of the combustion and post-mining residues in the production of a lightweight aggregate is beneficial and results in the formation of a porous and durable structure. The measured resistance to the crushing of the produced aggregates varied from 5.9 MPa to 7.5 MPa. They also showed a high freeze-thaw resistance and good resistance to aggressive environments (bases, acids, salt). The registered properties indicate that the aggregates meet the basic requirements for materials used in construction and road-building. This study has a scientific and didactic value in that it describes the step-by-step process of planning and implementing the production of synthetic mineral aggregates.

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