Mimosa tenuiflora aqueous extract (MAE) is rich in phenolic compounds. Among them, condensed tannins have been demonstrated to exhibit a strong antioxidant and antiaflatoxin B1 activities in Aspergillus flavus. Since antioxidant capacity can change with time due to environmental interactions, this study aimed to evaluate the ability of encapsulation by spray-drying of Mimosa tenuiflora aqueous extract to preserve their biological activities through storage. A dry formulation may also facilitate transportation and uses. For that, three different wall materials were used and compared for their efficiency. Total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, antifungal and antiaflatoxin activities were measured after the production of the microparticles and after one year of storage at room temperature. These results confirmed that encapsulation by spray-drying using polysaccharide wall materials is able to preserve antiaflatoxin activity of Mimosa tenuiflora extract better than freezing.
Spinacia oleracea “Spinach” is a plant rich in antioxidants; it leads to improved male reproduction. For this reason, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the aqueous extract of this plant on the fertility of adult male rabbits after their administration with ethanol. The rabbits were divided into four groups: control group, group treated with 150 mg / kg / day of aqueous Spinacia oleracea extract (Ep), group treated with 40% ethanol (EtOH), and group treated with 150 mg / kg / day of aqueous Spinacia oleracea extract + 40% ethanol (Ep + EtOH), for a period of five successive weeks. Treatment was administered orally. After sacrificing the rabbits, the reproductive organs were removed and weighed. Certain sperm parameters (concentration, mobility, speed, and vitality), the testosterone level and the weight of the testes and epididymis were assessed. The results obtained showed a decrease in the concentration, mobility, speed and vitality of sperm, accompanied by a decrease in testosterone levels, and in the weight of the testes and epididymis in the group treated with ethanol, on the other hand, treatment with aqueous Spinacia oleracea extract revealed an increase in these parameters. In conclusion, treatment with aqueous Spinacia oleracea extract can repair the damage caused by ethanol.
Lead exposure seriously impairs male reproductive function. The protective capacity of Pedalium murex leafy stem and fruit aqueous extracts against lead testicular toxicity is evaluated to find herbals drugs able to improve semen quality.
Phytochemical screening were performed according to classical methods. Twenty four male rats were divided into four groups of six rats each and received the following treatments via oral route: distilled water; 0.2% lead acetate in drinking water; 0.2% lead acetate in drinking water with 400 mg/kg P. murex aqueous leafy stem extract; 0.2% leaded water with 400 mg/kg P. murex aqueous fruit extract. Treatments were administered for 70 days. Body and reproductive organs weights, sperm parameters and testicular histological sections of each group were examined.
Flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, alkaloids, and lignans were found in both extracts. Lead intoxication reduced sperm motility and count but increased the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperms. The germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules histoarchitecture was disorganized by lead. The leafy stem extract was effective in reducing lead induced testicular disruption whereas fruit has not shown any beneficial effect.
P. murex leafy stem aqueous extract is effective against semen alterations caused by lead.
The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized via green synthesis approach using Euporbia serpens Kunth aqueous extract. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and Furrier Transformer Infra-Red spectroscopy to justify the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs from its precursors. AgNPs characteristic absorption peak was observed at 420 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. The SEM and TEM analysis demonstrated the spherical shape of the synthesized nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 30 nm to 80 nm. FTIR transmission bands at 2920 cm-1, 1639 cm-1, 1410 cm-1, 3290 cm-1, and 1085 cm-1 were attributed to C-H, C=O, C-C, N-H, and C-N functional groups, respectively. XRD peaks could be attributed to (111), (200), (220), and (311) crystalline plane of the faced-centered cube (FCC) crystalline structure of the metallic silver nanoparticles. The AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria at each concentration. The particles were found to be more active against Escherichia coli (E. coli) with
and Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) with
zone of inhibition in reference to standard antibiotic amoxicillin with
zone of inhibition, respectively. Moderate antifungal activities were observed against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) with zone of inhibitions 16.5 mm and 15 mm, respectively, compared to the standard with 23 mm of inhibition. Insignificant antifungal inhibition of 7.5 mm was observed against Fusarium gramium (F. gramium). All the tested concentrations of AgNPs showed comparable % RSA with the standard reference ascorbic acid in the range sixty percent to seventy five percent. The percent motility at 3 hours postincubation showed quick response and most Tetramorium caespitum were found deceased or paralyzed. Similarly, the percent mortality showed a linear response at concentration and time. It was observed that 1 μg/mL to 2 μg/mL concentration of AgNPs displayed a significant cytotoxic activity against Artemia salina with LD50 of 5.37 and 5.82, respectively.