red deer
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2022 ◽  
Peter Smolko ◽  
Peter Garaj ◽  
Tibor Lebocký ◽  
Ľubomír Bútora ◽  
Tibor Pataky ◽  

Oecologia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Hagen M. O’Neill ◽  
Sean D. Twiss ◽  
Philip A. Stephens ◽  
Tom H. E. Mason ◽  
Nils Ryrholm ◽  

AbstractEcosystem engineers affect other organisms by creating, maintaining or modifying habitats, potentially supporting species of conservation concern. However, it is important to consider these interactions alongside non-engineering trophic pathways. We investigated the relative importance of trophic and non-trophic effects of an ecosystem engineer, red deer, on a locally rare moth, the transparent burnet (Zygaena purpuralis). This species requires specific microhabitat conditions, including the foodplant, thyme, and bare soil for egg-laying. The relative importance of grazing (i.e., trophic effect of modifying microhabitat) and trampling (i.e., non-trophic effect of exposing bare soil) by red deer on transparent burnet abundance is unknown. We tested for these effects using a novel method of placing pheromone-baited funnel traps in the field. Imago abundance throughout the flight season was related to plant composition, diversity and structure at various scales around each trap. Indirect effects of red deer activity were accounted for by testing red deer pellet and trail presence against imago abundance. Imago abundance was positively associated with thyme and plant diversity, whilst negatively associated with velvet grass and heather species cover. The presence of red deer pellets and trails were positively associated with imago abundance. The use of these sites by red deer aids the transparent burnet population via appropriate levels of grazing and the provision of a key habitat condition, bare soil, in the form of deer trails. This study shows that understanding how both trophic and non-trophic interactions affect the abundance of a species provides valuable insights regarding conservation objectives.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 129
Camilla Smoglica ◽  
Alberto Vergara ◽  
Simone Angelucci ◽  
Anna Rita Festino ◽  
Antonio Antonucci ◽  

The aim of this study was to determine and characterize potential resistance mechanisms against selected Critically Important Antibiotics in Escherichia coli isolates collected from wild and domestic ruminants living in the Maiella National Park, in Central Italy. A total of 38 isolates were obtained from red deer, Apennine chamois, cattle, sheep, and goats grazing in lands with different levels of anthropic pressure. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by Minimal Inhibitory Concentration testing, showing phenotypic resistance to colistin, meropenem, or ceftazidime in 9 isolates along with one bacterial strain being resistant to three of the tested antibiotics. In addition, the biomolecular assays allowed the amplification of the genes conferring the colistin (mcr-4), the carbapenems (OXA-48), penicillins and cephalosporins (TEM, SHV, CMY-1, CMY-2) resistance. In order to describe the potential pathogenicity of isolates under study, virulence genes related to Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) pathovars were identified. This study is the first report of mcr-4 and OXA-48 genes in resistant E. coli harboring virulence genes in Italian wildlife, with special regard to Apennine chamois and red deer species. The multidisciplinary approach used in this study can improve the early detection of emerging antibiotic resistance determinants in human-animal-environment interfaces by means of wildlife monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Petra Bandelj ◽  
Polona Juntes ◽  
Gorazd Vengušt ◽  
Diana Žele Vengušt

This study describes two female wapitis (Cervus canadensis) with neurological signs associated with an Elaphostrongylus cervi (E. cervi) infection. The original host of the nematode parasite is the Eurasian red deer (Cervus elaphus), although other cervids and small ruminants may also be affected. The two wapitis imported from Canada were kept in an enclosure with the Slovenian red deer herd. After developing debilitating neurological signs, the wapitis were euthanized and examined for possible causes. A histopathological examination of the brain of the first wapiti revealed severe diffuse perivascular meningoencephalitis with chronic vasculitis, and some cross-sections of nematodes were found in the leptomeninges. A necropsy of the second wapiti revealed severe pachymeningitis and leptomeningitis, where several adult nematode parasites were found. E. cervi was confirmed by molecular methods. The prevalence of E. cervi in the European red deer population is high, but no study has been conducted to assess its prevalence in Slovenia. This was the first confirmation of E. cervi in Slovenia and the first infection with this parasite described in Europe in a wapiti. Elaphostrongylus cervi should also be considered as a differential diagnosis in Europe for all ruminants grazing on pastures frequented by red deer and showing neurological clinical signs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (1) ◽  
Hanna Rauch ◽  
Friederike Pohlin ◽  
Joy Einwaller ◽  
Manuela Habe ◽  
Johanna Painer ◽  

Stine T. Nielsen ◽  
Mette F. Hansen ◽  
Mariann Chriél ◽  
Heidi H. Petersen

2022 ◽  
pp. 109660
Alex Chambers ◽  
Paul Candy ◽  
Peter Green ◽  
Christian Sauermann ◽  
Dave Leathwick

Danara V. Ubushieva ◽  

Introduction. There are a great number of “familiar” motifs and plotlines in Kalmyk folklore that originate from mythology. One such archaic story of a universal character in the Turkic-Mongolian world is a cosmogonic myth of the heavenly hunter and the three red deer. The article aims to attempt at reconstructing this cosmogonic myth in the Kalmyk epic heritage. Importantly, such reconstruction requires typological comparisons because the story is easily “identified” in a variety of traditions. The research materials used are the texts of early Baga Tsokhur cycle sagas of Kalmyk heroic epic “Djanggar”. The analysis was based on structural-semantic, structural-typological, and comparative methods. As a result, the author comes to the following conclusions. The structural-semantic analysis of the motif manifests its archaic roots originating from the ideas of cosmogonic beginnings of the universe. The epic story relating of Savar Warrior following the moon path while hunting deer and red deer originates from a cosmogonic myth of the heavenly marksman [Sirius] and the three red deer [the stars from the belt of the constellation Orion]. Moreover, the character of Savar Warrior shows some elements that may be associated with the archaic myth of a bear-hunter chasing the deer that stole the sun. The results of the present study agree with other researchers’ views, according to which, the principal symbols that the archaic calendar of the Kalmyk ancestors included were the images of a hoofed animal and a bear and that the image of the heavenly hunter of the ancient myth relating of the world beginning characteristic of a number of folklore traditions was a substitute of the mythological bear, the liberator of the sun.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
María Sánchez ◽  
Félix Valcárcel ◽  
Julia González ◽  
Marta G. González ◽  
Raquel Martín-Hernández ◽  

(1) Background: Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii that have cases reported in humans and animals almost everywhere. The aim of this study was to describe the seasonality of Coxiella burnetii in the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum in a meso-Mediterranean ecosystem. (2) Methods: two populations of wild rabbits that differ in whether or not they share habitat with ungulates, mainly red deer (Cervus elaphus) were sampled for a year to collect ticks, blood and vaginal or anal swabs. Presence of C. burnetii DNA in swabs and the tick H. lusitanicum was determined by PCR and serum antibodies by ELISA. (3) Results: C. burnetii DNA was detected in 47.2% of 583 rabbits, in 65.5% of sera, and in more than half of the H. lusitanicum. There were small variations according to sex and age of the rabbits but significant according to the habitat (4) Conclusions: The results indicate that C. burnetii circulates freely between wild rabbits and H. lusitanicum and the sylvatic cycle in meso-Mediterranean environments relies in the presence of wild rabbits and H. lusitanicum above all if sharing habitat with red deer.

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