Road Traffic Accidents
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Parul Vaid ◽  
Bhavuk Kapoor ◽  
Mayank Kapoor

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world TBI is called the ‘silent epidemic’ because problems resulting from TBI are often not immediately visible and TBI patients are not very vociferous. Epidemiological studies of TBI are essential to the targeted prevention and effective treatment of brain-injured patients. Epidemiology analysis of surgically managed traumatic brain injury patients was done. Mean age was 35.9 years. Males were more commonly (80%) involved than females (20%). In 57.5% of cases, falls were responsible for TBI and in 42.5% of cases, Road traffic accidents were responsible. Edh was the most common type of TBI in (50%). Chronic SDH occurred in 25% of cases. Acute SDH and Contusions were both seen in 13.75% of cases. Depressed fractures occurred in 6.25% of cases and ICH occurred in 1.25% of cases. Craniotomy was the most common (42%) surgical procedure performed, followed by burrhole drainage (22.5%). Decompressive craniectomy was done in 18.75% of cases and elevation of depressed fracture was performed in 6.25% of cases. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) constitutes a major health and socioeconomic problem throughout the world. People of all ages are affected by it. Males are more commonly involved as compared to females. Timely hospitalisation and surgical management whenever indicated improves the survival.

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 642-647
Anubha Bhatti ◽  
Arushi Kakkar ◽  
Shakeen Singh

To study the epidemiology and clinical profile of ocular trauma patients presenting to tertiary care centre. Prospective study. All patients of ocular trauma in OPD/Emergency were assessed for detail between 1/1/17 to 31/6/18 and data on demographic profile was established as per guidelines of Ocular Trauma Society of India. Patients were categorized in different segments and assessed/followed for visual impairment in particular. A total of 246 cases were examined out of which 87% were males. The most common mode of ocular injury was Road Traffic Accidents. Pediatric eye trauma constituted 16.7% of the total cases. 26.8% cases arrived to our centre between 4-24 hours and 62.6% cases presented after 24 hours. Amongst 131 cases of Road Traffic Accidents, none of them were using protective measures like helmets or goggles. Of these, 17.1% were under the influence of alcohol. 28.5% were involved in medicolegal proceedings. Majority of the cases comprised of monocular trauma (78.1%). Closed globe injuries constituted 88.94% of the total cases of which most cases presented with lid edema and ecchymosis. Chemical injuries were reported in 4.5% cases. 9 patients lost vision completely and 71 cases had vision from light perception to 6/18. Ocular trauma is one of the common causes of ocular morbidity. It has been seen predominantly in male population. Public needs to be educated about safety measurements and education about prompt need to specialised care to reduce ocular trauma related visual morbidity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 828
Tebogo Bokaba ◽  
Wesley Doorsamy ◽  
Babu Sena Paul

Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of injuries and fatalities worldwide. In recent years, there has been a growing global interest in analysing RTAs, specifically concerned with analysing and modelling accident data to better understand and assess the causes and effects of accidents. This study analysed the performance of widely used machine learning classifiers using a real-life RTA dataset from Gauteng, South Africa. The study aimed to assess prediction model designs for RTAs to assist transport authorities and policymakers. It considered classifiers such as naïve Bayes, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbour, AdaBoost, support vector machine, random forest, and five missing data methods. These classifiers were evaluated using five evaluation metrics: accuracy, root-mean-square error, precision, recall, and receiver operating characteristic curves. Furthermore, the assessment involved parameter adjustment and incorporated dimensionality reduction techniques. The empirical results and analyses show that the RF classifier, combined with multiple imputations by chained equations, yielded the best performance when compared with the other combinations.

Olga Shevchenko

The last decade reflects undeniable rapid growth in intelligent connected mobility in the European Union and internationally. Whereas automotive producers united forces to address the projected technical difficulties vis-à-vis the deployment of Intelligent Connected Vehicles through coordinated efforts and partnerships, academia is committed to clarifying fundamental new regulatory concepts to reveal potential and foreseeable legal inconsistencies in such technological development. The lack of a determination of the fundamental legal concepts or the vague and ambiguous determination of essential regulatory concepts creates overall legal uncertainty and is considered an obstacle to ensuring the smooth market penetration of Intelligent Connected Vehicles in the European Union. This article claims its contribution to existing literature by integrating further unambiguous and specific regulatory concepts in the context of the regulation of Intelligent Connected Vehicles. This article addresses: (i) the prerequisites for uniform Intelligent Connected Vehicles’ fundamental regulatory concepts based on complex retrospective analysis vis-à-vis road traffic accidents involving conventional vehicles and (ii) the prototype of regulatory concepts that need to be established and accurately distinguished for intelligent connected mobility 4.0, with the cross-border element at the European Union level.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (15) ◽  
pp. 127-130
Vera Aslamova ◽  
Polina Kuznetsova ◽  
Aleksandr Aslamov

The article analyzes the indicators of road traffic accidents for 2020 in the Irkutsk region and Russia. The main reasons for the implementation of road accidents are identified. The current state of road safety has been analyzed within the framework of the Safe and High-Quality Roads Project. An excess of the actual values of social and transport risks was established by 1.19 and 1.38 times the corresponding Russian indicators

YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 144-147
R Srinivas ◽  
Mohamed Naleer ◽  
Kishore Kumar ◽  

Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a field and disorder less explored in neurosurgery though we see many cases. The commonest causes in our set up includes head injury for which people have undergone decompressive craniectomies, severe head injuries with raised ICP. We did a clinical analysis on 23 cases in a period of 3 years duration from 2018 -2021. We did Evd in few cases for emergency purposes when there was decerebration and we went ahead with VP shunt in all the patients who had gross ventricular dilatation. We have projected our analytical report in these cases. METHODS A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery in Sri Ramachandra medical college. The clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with PTH was studied. These cases were treated by surgery. The stastical analysis along with cause of the hydrocephalus with the outcome in pre and postoperative period were studied. RESULTS Among the 23 patients studied 82% were males. Road traffic accident was the main cause of injury. The other main cause was a fall from height. Assault was another reason for head injuries which we recorded. We found all road traffic accidents were only because of bike riders either pillion or the people driving the vehicle. . Craniotomy was done in 50 % of the patients, 90 % of the patients recovered who had a gcs of 13 to 7. People with gcs lss than 7 were intubated recovery rate was 7.5 %. . There was 100%mortality because of primary head injury in all the patients who had brain stem contusions with dilated pupil. CONCLUSIONS Trauma to head and who were operated had the highest incidence of post tramatic head injury. Smaller the decompressive craniectomies had symptomatic post traumatic head ache with post traumatic hydrocephalus.. CT scan of the brain is considered the choice of investigation toearly diagnose PTH.we even analysed the ct scan and found when there was periventricular lucency the patient outcome after VP shunting is good. KEY WORDS Hydrocephalus, Head Injury, Trauma

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 337
Alok Atreya ◽  
Suman Baral ◽  
Ritesh G Menezes ◽  
Samata Nepal

Background: Male genital injuries are urological emergencies which if not promptly treated with correct therapeutic intervention may lead to loss of fertility due to infections and anatomical disruption of normalcy. This study highlights the clinical scenarios, etiology and outcome of male genital injury cases that were managed at a tertiary care center in Nepal. Such injuries are not frequently encountered as patients are hesitant to report such injuries. The present study is the first from Nepal which depicts a comprehensive report on male genital injuries.   Methods: A retrospective analysis of discharge summaries of the cases of male genital injuries was reviewed during June 2020. All the treated cases during the two-year period from April 2018 to April 2020 at Lumbini Medical College, Nepal were included in the study.  Results: There were eight cases of genital trauma admitted and treated during the study period. All the patients were males and age ranged from six to 71 years with a mean age of 33 ± 21.45 years. Fall injury and road traffic accidents (RTA) were observed to be the primary cause in the majority of cases.  Conclusion: Superficial injuries to the penis and scrotum do not require surgical exploration and could be managed conservatively. However, deeper and complicated injuries, testicular preservation, the functionality of the part and cosmetic issues are taken into consideration which might require a multi-disciplinary approach. Apart from the medical issues pertaining to genital injuries, there are legal and psychological aspects of such events too which should not be ignored.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 16-21
Sudatta Waghmare ◽  
ashish Aswar ◽  
Hiranya Deka ◽  
Aman Singh ◽  
Arjav Nanavati ◽  

Abstract Background: Head injury is considered as a major health problem in developed and developing nations. Analysis of etiology, patterns, and outcome of head injury in trauma patient is essential for understanding and planning for better management. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study carried out among patients who presented with head injury at the tertiary care hospital, Mumbai from July 2015 to July 2017. Demographic details recorded were age, sex, blood pressure on arrival, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, the interval between injury and admission, associated injury, co-morbidities, hospital stay, and outcome. Results: The age group at which maximum patients of head injury were admitted was 18-29 years (31%) followed by 40-49 years (21%). Eighty one percent patients were males and 19% patients were females, the male to female ratio being 4:1. Road traffic accidents (36% cases) were the commonest cause leading to acute head injury followed by accidental fall (21% cases). 47% patients presented with mild head injury according to GCS. Conclusion: Head injuries mainly caused by vehicular accidents and affect mainly the young men. Road traffic accidents were the commonest mode of head injury, but railway accident had the worst outcome in our study. Factors associated with outcome were Pre-hospital delay, GCS on arrival, Blood pressure on arrival, Associated injury, Need for ventilator support, CT scan findings.

Rakshith Srinivasa ◽  
Sunil V. Furtado ◽  
Tanvy Sansgiri ◽  
Kuldeep Vala

Abstract Aim We present our experience in the management of frontal bone fractures using the previously described radiologic classification of frontal bone fractures. Methodology A retrospective study was conducted, which reviewed the medical records and computed tomographic (CT) scan images of patients with frontal bone fracture from January 2016 to February 2019. Patients with complete medical records and a follow-up of minimum 1 year were included in the study. Demographic details, mechanism of injury, associated intracranial injuries, maxillofacial fractures, management, and complications were analyzed. CT scan images were used to classify the frontal bone fractures using the novel classification given by Garg et al (2014). The indications for surgical treatment were inner table frontal sinus fracture with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, intracranial hematoma with significant mass effect requiring surgical evacuation, and outer table comminuted fracture that is either causing nasofrontal duct obstruction or for cosmetic purpose. Results A total of 55 patients were included in the study. Road traffic accidents as the commonest cause of frontal bone fractures. The most common fracture pattern was type 1 followed by type 5 and depth B followed by depth A. Four patients presented with CSF rhinorrhea. CSF rhinorrhea was more frequent with fracture extension to the skull base (depth B, C, D), which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Conclusion Frontal bone fracture management has to be tailor-made for each patient based on the extent of the fracture, presence of CSF leak, and associated intracranial and maxillofacial injuries.

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