head injury
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 266-274
Divya K P ◽  
Ajith Cherian

A patient with known epilepsy who has had a single, habitual seizure and whose mental status has returned to baseline need not be transported to the emergency department (ED) unless other injuries require so, whereas a patient with no history of epilepsy who has returned to baseline following a seizure should be evaluated. The evaluation should include basic biochemical parameters, toxicology screening and a brain imaging. One should investigate circumstances that may have precipitated a seizure, such as alcohol withdrawal, stimulant use, or head injury. Risk of recurrence of seizures is more likely in those with a history of significant brain injury or infection. If the patient has a normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalograph (EEG), the likelihood of a second seizure is approximately 1 in 3; if either test result is abnormal, the chances are approximately 1 in 2; if both are abnormal, the probability rises to 2 in 3. Computed tomography (CT) scan head is very useful in the evaluation of first seizure in infants less than six months of age. The clinical characteristics predictive of an abnormal CT scan for patients presenting with seizures were age less than 6 months or age greater than 65 years, history of cysticercosis, altered mentation, closed head injury, recent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt revision, malignancy, neurocutaneous disorder and seizures with focal onset or duration longer than 15 minutes. MRI has been shown to be superior to CT for the detection of cerebral lesions associated with epilepsy.

YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 144-147
R Srinivas ◽  
Mohamed Naleer ◽  
Kishore Kumar ◽  

Post-traumatic hydrocephalus (PTH) is a field and disorder less explored in neurosurgery though we see many cases. The commonest causes in our set up includes head injury for which people have undergone decompressive craniectomies, severe head injuries with raised ICP. We did a clinical analysis on 23 cases in a period of 3 years duration from 2018 -2021. We did Evd in few cases for emergency purposes when there was decerebration and we went ahead with VP shunt in all the patients who had gross ventricular dilatation. We have projected our analytical report in these cases. METHODS A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Neurosurgery in Sri Ramachandra medical college. The clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with PTH was studied. These cases were treated by surgery. The stastical analysis along with cause of the hydrocephalus with the outcome in pre and postoperative period were studied. RESULTS Among the 23 patients studied 82% were males. Road traffic accident was the main cause of injury. The other main cause was a fall from height. Assault was another reason for head injuries which we recorded. We found all road traffic accidents were only because of bike riders either pillion or the people driving the vehicle. . Craniotomy was done in 50 % of the patients, 90 % of the patients recovered who had a gcs of 13 to 7. People with gcs lss than 7 were intubated recovery rate was 7.5 %. . There was 100%mortality because of primary head injury in all the patients who had brain stem contusions with dilated pupil. CONCLUSIONS Trauma to head and who were operated had the highest incidence of post tramatic head injury. Smaller the decompressive craniectomies had symptomatic post traumatic head ache with post traumatic hydrocephalus.. CT scan of the brain is considered the choice of investigation toearly diagnose PTH.we even analysed the ct scan and found when there was periventricular lucency the patient outcome after VP shunting is good. KEY WORDS Hydrocephalus, Head Injury, Trauma

2022 ◽  
Valerie Brandt ◽  
Charlotte Hall ◽  
Hedwig Eisenbarth ◽  
James Hall

Background: Research suggests a link between acquired head injury and signs of conduct disorder, with a majority of findings based on retrospective reports and comparison samples. The relationship between head injuries and conduct problems and how they may influence one another during development is currently unclear. This study aimed to investigate direct and indirect associations between head injury and conduct problems through to early adolescence. Methods: Data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study was used to investigate the relationship between conduct problems as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and parent reported head injury over time, at ages 9 months, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 14 years, using a cross-lagged path analysis. This is data from 18,552 children, participating in a UK cohort study that is representative of the UK population. We included 7,041 (3,308 male) children, who had full information about head injuries and conduct problems at age 14. Results: We found a mutual association between childhood head injuries and conduct problems but with distinct timings: Head injury between 5-7 years predicted greater chance of conduct problems at age 11 and 14 years, while greater conduct problems at 5 years predicted a significantly greater chance of a head injury at age 7-11 years. Conclusions: These findings have important implications for the timing of preventive and ameliorative interventions. Prior to school entry, interventions aiming to reduce conduct problems would appear most effective at reducing likelihood of head injuries in future years. However, equivalent interventions targeting head injuries would be better timed either as children are entering formal primary education, or soon after they have entered.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002581722110381
Qasim Mehmood ◽  
Fatima Yasin ◽  
Arif Rasheed Malik

The deliberate killing of a foetus in the womb, or a child from the first 24 h of birth to one month of age, or within the first year of life, is called foeticide, neonaticide and infanticide, respectively. Socioeconomic stress, mental illness, gender selection, shame or fear of punishment of adultery or illegitimacy, grudge and jealousy with parents and negligent delivery by dai are major causative factors in such cases. This is a retrospective, descriptive, observational study, and the sample pool consisted of 35 cases. Foeticide cases were 42.9% of the total and the same percentage of cases were neonaticides, while 14.3% of cases were of infanticide. The male-to-female ratio was 1.26:1 and the major cause of death was head injury. The study shows a prevalence of foeticide and neonaticide as compared to infanticide. It also displays the prevalence of males in overall cases and a higher number of unknown cases in our setting.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 135-147
Esraa Hamdy Hassan ◽  
Manal Salah Hassan ◽  
Hanan Gaber Mohamed ◽  
Nehal Mahmoud Abo EL-Fadl

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 16-21
Sudatta Waghmare ◽  
ashish Aswar ◽  
Hiranya Deka ◽  
Aman Singh ◽  
Arjav Nanavati ◽  

Abstract Background: Head injury is considered as a major health problem in developed and developing nations. Analysis of etiology, patterns, and outcome of head injury in trauma patient is essential for understanding and planning for better management. Materials and Methods: The prospective observational study carried out among patients who presented with head injury at the tertiary care hospital, Mumbai from July 2015 to July 2017. Demographic details recorded were age, sex, blood pressure on arrival, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, the interval between injury and admission, associated injury, co-morbidities, hospital stay, and outcome. Results: The age group at which maximum patients of head injury were admitted was 18-29 years (31%) followed by 40-49 years (21%). Eighty one percent patients were males and 19% patients were females, the male to female ratio being 4:1. Road traffic accidents (36% cases) were the commonest cause leading to acute head injury followed by accidental fall (21% cases). 47% patients presented with mild head injury according to GCS. Conclusion: Head injuries mainly caused by vehicular accidents and affect mainly the young men. Road traffic accidents were the commonest mode of head injury, but railway accident had the worst outcome in our study. Factors associated with outcome were Pre-hospital delay, GCS on arrival, Blood pressure on arrival, Associated injury, Need for ventilator support, CT scan findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 83 (01) ◽  
pp. e3-e7
Holger Schlag ◽  
Jonathan Neuhoff ◽  
Jens Castein ◽  
Christoph Hoffmann ◽  
Frank Kandziora

AbstractCivilian penetrating head injury caused by foreign objects is rare in Germany (Europe), but can result in complex neurovascular damage. We report on a patient who in suicidal intent inflicted on himself a penetrating brain injury near the vertex with a captive bolt gun. A laceration at the junction of the middle to the posterior third of the superior sinus occurred by bolt and bone fragments leading to critical stenosis and subsequent thrombosis. Upon surgery, the proximal and distal sinus openings were completely thrombosed. The sinus laceration was closed by suture and the intraparenchymal bone fragments were retrieved. Postoperative angiography disclosed persistent occlusion of the superior sagittal sinus. The patient did not develop any symptoms due to venous congestion (edema, hemorrhage), suggesting sufficient collateral venous outflow. The patient completely recovered despite the complexity of the lesion.

2022 ◽  
pp. 199-222
Richard J. Gould ◽  
Peter Lax

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