Reduction Techniques
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Akram Vasighizaker ◽  
Saiteja Danda ◽  
Luis Rueda

AbstractIdentifying relevant disease modules such as target cell types is a significant step for studying diseases. High-throughput single-cell RNA-Seq (scRNA-seq) technologies have advanced in recent years, enabling researchers to investigate cells individually and understand their biological mechanisms. Computational techniques such as clustering, are the most suitable approach in scRNA-seq data analysis when the cell types have not been well-characterized. These techniques can be used to identify a group of genes that belong to a specific cell type based on their similar gene expression patterns. However, due to the sparsity and high-dimensionality of scRNA-seq data, classical clustering methods are not efficient. Therefore, the use of non-linear dimensionality reduction techniques to improve clustering results is crucial. We introduce a method that is used to identify representative clusters of different cell types by combining non-linear dimensionality reduction techniques and clustering algorithms. We assess the impact of different dimensionality reduction techniques combined with the clustering of thirteen publicly available scRNA-seq datasets of different tissues, sizes, and technologies. We further performed gene set enrichment analysis to evaluate the proposed method’s performance. As such, our results show that modified locally linear embedding combined with independent component analysis yields overall the best performance relative to the existing unsupervised methods across different datasets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. e246581
Austin Gomindes ◽  
Mohammedabbas Remtulla ◽  
Julian Cooper ◽  
Anastasios P Nikolaides

We present a case of an elderly and comorbid patient who was scheduled to undergo a hip fracture fixation using an intramedullary nail. Unfortunately, this was delayed by 3 weeks as the patient was unfit to undergo this procedure. She was placed onto the traction table and intraoperatively sustained a superior and inferior pubic rami fracture while attempting reduction on the traction table. Closed-reduction techniques using traction tables and perineal posts are not without morbidity. Risk factors such as osteoporosis and delayed-fixation should be accounted for when managing this complex and often frail group of patients.

Emily S. Sagalow ◽  
Vanessa Christopher ◽  
Kurren Gill ◽  
Raphael Banoub ◽  
Somya Shankar ◽  

Jessica Nataly Gómez‐Aguirre ◽  
Liliana Argueta‐Figueroa ◽  
María Eugenia Marcela Castro‐Gutiérrez ◽  
Rafael Torres‐Rosas

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