Invasive alien species are a major threat to global biodiversity due to the tremendous ecological and economic damage they cause in forestry, agriculture, wetlands, and pastoral resources. Understanding the spatial pattern of invasive alien species and disentangling the biophysical drivers of invasion at the forest stand level is essential for managing forest ecosystems and the wider landscape. However, forest-level and species-specific information on Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) abundance and their spatial extent are largely lacking. In this context, we analysed the cover of one of the world’s worst invasive plants, Chromolaena odorata, in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in central Nepal. Vegetation was sampled in four community forests using 0.01 ha square quadrats, covering the forest edge to the interior. C. odorata cover, floral richness, tree density, forest canopy cover, shrub cover, tree basal area, and disturbances were measured in each plot. We also explored forest and IAPS management practices in community forests. C. odorata cover was negatively correlated with forest canopy cover, distance to the road, angle of slope, and shrub cover. Tree canopy cover had the largest effect on C. odorata cover. No pattern of C. odorata cover was seen along native species richness gradients. In conclusion, forest canopy cover is the overriding biotic covariate suppressing C. odorata cover in Sal forests.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded levels of Chromolaena odorata leaf meal (COLM) on production performance, egg quality characteristics, and serum biochemical parameters on Brahma laying hens. A total of forty-five local laying hens aged 4 to 5 months were weighed and assigned to three treatment groups in a completely randomized design. COLM was used as a supplement and incorporated into the diets at 0, 1, and 2% in diets T0, T1, and T2 respectively. Data were collected on production performance, egg quality characteristics, and serum biochemistry. Results from the study indicate that body weight gain, average weight, and egg volume were low (p<0.05) with treatment T2 compared to control (T0) and the best was obtained with treatment T1. The Haugh unit and percentage hen day production were not negatively affected by the treatment levels of COLM. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in triglyceride, total cholesterol, and urea. Results obtained from this study revealed that the inclusion of 1% of COLM improved the egg quality as well as the health status of the birds without having any detrimental effect on the birds.
The sudden rise in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases, severe side effects, and the high cost of conventional methods have necessitated the intensive search for alternative BPH management strategies. This study investigated the restorative effects of ethanol leaf extract of Chromolaena odorata (EECO) on testosterone-induced BPH in male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats with a weight range of 150-210 g were randomly distributed into six groups of five rats each. Group 1 was normal rats and not induced. Groups 2-6 were induced via daily subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate (3 mg/kg) for 28 days. After induction, group 2 received vehicle (carboxyl methylcellulose), group 3 received finasteride (1 mg/kg), while groups 4-6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of EECO, respectively, for 21 days orally. Prostate and biochemical parameters were determined using standard methods. Treatments with EECO decreased the concentrations of prostate-sensitive antigen, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, malondialdehyde, cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, and liver enzyme activities compared with BPH-control. Furthermore, there was increased superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in extract treated groups compared with BPH- control. The findings from this study showed that EECO inhibited testosterone-induced BPH anomalies, making it promising phytotherapy for the management of BPH in males.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of Chromolaena odorata.
Methods: Encapsulation of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract by nano chitosan was synthesized by using chitosan and NaTPP as the crosslinking agent. The antioxidant activity was conducted by using the DPPH method.
Results: Nanoparticles of Chromolaena odorata leaf extract has an average diameter of 675±218 nm and+23.4±7.14 mV of zeta potential. The antioxidant activity of its extract was 0.86 ppm, while its nanoparticle has the better antioxidant activity of 0.21 ppm.
Conclusion: Nanoparticles of Chromolaena odorata have very strong antioxidant activity and the potential to be external antioxidants.
Previous study only implemented the time consuming and low amount of yield technique for extraction from Chromolaena odorata which is conventional method. Nonconventional extraction method with short extraction time and high amount of yield was applied in this study by applying ultrasound-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE). UAEE was used to extract tannic acid from Chromolaena odorata. The extraction parameters involved were enzyme concentration, sonication time and duty cycle at constant temperature of 50°C, solid to liquid ratio of 1:10 and sonication power at 60% amplitude. The optimum extraction process was found at cellulase enzyme concentration of 4%, sonication time of 60 minutes and duty cycle of 50% with the obtained concentration of tannic acid at 1.6152 mg/mL. The study showed that the UAEE could be employed to enhance yield of tannic acid, reduce the extraction time and ensuring green extraction method were applied in the study.
The phytoremediation potential of Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) was tested in lead (Pb) contaminated nutrient media with 5% (w/v) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 induced drought stress conditions. The plant was treated with 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 mg/L Pb for 15 days. Different concentrations of Pb or in combination with PEG had no effect on plant growth parameters. Drought reduced water content (WC) (p<0.05), but did not affect the reduction of chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency in plant tissues after 15 days of treatment. Under drought conditions, plants showed the largest Pb accumulation in roots (5,503.7 mg/kg) and exhibited the highest uptake at 50 mg/L solution (18.24 g/plant), but the translocation factor values (TFs) of Pb from root to shoot were all less than 1. Under both drought and non-drought conditions, the bioconcentration factor values (BCFs) decreased with increasing Pb concentrations. According to BCFs and TFs, C. odorata may be promising for phytostabilization of Pb. Based on high biomass, tolerance, and Pb uptake, the result of this hydroponic study test reveals that C. odorata has a good potential for developing Pb phytoremediation strategies in drought-stressed conditions.