male rats
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Ijaz ◽  
S. A. Majeed ◽  
A. Asharaf ◽  
T. Ali ◽  
K. A. Al-Ghanim ◽  

Abstract Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
C. Chaimontri ◽  
S. Iamsaard

Abstract Although Dolichandrone serrulata flower (DSF) aqueous extract has been shown to possess pharmacological properties, its systemic toxicity has still to be evaluated. The present study aimed to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity effect of DSF extract on biochemical parameters and histological structures of liver, kidney, testis, and epididymis plus vas deferens. Adult male rats were administered DSF at 100, 300, and 600 mg/kgBW via oral gavage for 48 consecutive days while control rats received distilled water. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, kidney, testis, and epididymis plus vas deferens samples were collected to determine any changes to serum biochemical components including ALT, ALP, and creatinine levels and histological structures. The results revealed no significant difference in body weight and food or water consumption between control and the DSF-treated groups. It was found that DSF significantly increases the weight of epididymis plus vas deferens, while the kidney and liver showed a decrease in the high dose group (P value < 0.05). Histological changes in these vital and reproductive tissues including fibrosis were not observed after administration but ALT, ALP, and creatinine levels were significantly altered in the treated groups (P value < 0.05). These altered levels, however, were still within normal ranges. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that D. serrulata flower extract had no sub-chronic toxicity on vital and reproductive structures but slightly altered some liver and kidney functions.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Bati ◽  
I. Celik ◽  
N. Eray Vuran ◽  
A. Turan ◽  
E. E. Alkan ◽  

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 100477
Vladimir Bykov ◽  
Evgenia Gushchina ◽  
Sergey Morozov ◽  
Natalia Zhuravskaya ◽  
Kirill Kryshen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
I-Chen Li ◽  
Fang-Chia Chang ◽  
Ching-Chuan Kuo ◽  
Hsin-Tung Chu ◽  
Tsung-Ju Li ◽  

Sleep disturbances have been the hallmark of the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Studies have shown that once sleep is disrupted, it can lead to psychological and physical health issues which can, in turn, disrupt circadian rhythm and induce further sleep disruption. As consumers are trying to establish healthy routines, nutritional and preclinical safety investigation of fermented hispidin-enriched Sanghuangporus sanghuang mycelia (GKSS) as a novel food material for spontaneous sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats is conducted for the first time. Results showed that the nutritional analysis of GKSS including moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein, carbohydrate, and energy were found to be 2.4 ± 0.3%, 8.0 ± 2.5%, 1.7 ± 0.3%, 22.9 ± 1.2%, 65.1 ± 3.1%, and 367.1 ± 10.2 kcal/100 g respectively. In the 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study, only Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving 5 g/kg showed a slight decrease in feed consumption at week 3, but no associated clinical signs of toxicity or significant weight loss were observed. Although a significant reduction of the platelet count was found in mid- and high-dose GKSS treated male groups, such changes were noted to be within the normal range and were not correlated with relative spleen weight changes. Hence, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GKSS was identified to be higher than 5 g/kg in rats. After the safety of GKSS is confirmed, the sleep-promoting effect of GKSS ethanolic extract enriched with hispidin was further assessed. Despite 75 mg/kg of GKSS ethanolic extract does not affect wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, GKSS ethanolic extract at 150 mg/kg significantly decreased wakefulness and enhanced NREM and REM sleep. Interestingly, such effects seem to be mediated through anti-inflammatory activities via NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings provide the preliminary evidence to studies support the claims suggesting that GKSS contained useful phytochemical hispidin could be considered as and is safe to use as a functional food agent or nutraceutical for relieving sleep problems mediated by Nrf2 pathway, which the results are useful for future clinical pilot study.

David De Sa Nogueira ◽  
Romain Bourdy ◽  
Rafael Alcala-Vida ◽  
Dominique Filliol ◽  
Virginie Andry ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Florence Nalimu ◽  
Joseph Oloro ◽  
Emanuel L. Peter ◽  
Patrick Engeu Ogwang

Abstract Background Several local communities in Central, Western, Eastern, and Northern regions of Uganda have been using the whole leaf extracts of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae) in the treatment of various ailments. Also, several commercial companies sell A. vera as soft drinks in Uganda. However, there are inadequate reports on the toxicities of such preparations. This paper reports the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of aqueous extracts of whole leaf and green rind of A. vera in Wistar rats. Methods Acute oral toxicity test was carried out in female Wistar rats at doses of 175, 550, 1750, and 5000 mg/kg, p.o. The animals were observed for signs of toxicity for 14 days. Similarly, a sub-acute oral toxicity test was performed in both sexes of rats at doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg, p.o. daily for 28 days. All the groups of animals were monitored for behavioral, morphological, biochemical, and physiological changes, including mortality and compared with respective controls. Body weights were measured weekly while the animals’ relative organ weights, hematological, biochemical, gross, and microscopic pathology were examined on day 29. Results There was no mortality or apparent behavioral changes at the doses tested in acute and sub-acute oral toxicity tests. Thus, the Median Lethal Dose (LD50) of green rind and whole leaf aqueous extracts was above 5000 mg/kg. Gross anatomy revealed that the rats’ relative spleen weight in green rind extract at 200 mg/kg significantly decreased compared to the control group. The creatinine levels in female rats that received green rind extract and the chloride ion levels in male rats administered whole leaf extract were significantly elevated. Conversely, Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) levels significantly decreased at lower doses of the green rind extract compared to the control. Histopathology of the kidney revealed the renal interstitium’s inflammation at doses of 200 and 800 mg/kg of the whole leaf extract. Conclusion The findings demonstrated that A. vera green rind and whole leaf extracts are non-toxic at relatively high doses when used for a short duration. Prolonged use of the aqueous whole leaf extract might be associated with kidney toxicity.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262263
Yoichiro Kitajima ◽  
Nana Sato Hashizume ◽  
Chikako Saiki ◽  
Ryoji Ide ◽  
Toshio Imai

Purpose We examined the cardiorespiratory effect of dexmedetomidine, an α2- adrenoceptor/imidazoline 1 (I1) receptor agonist, in spontaneously breathing adult rats. Methods Male rats (226−301 g, n = 49) under isoflurane anesthesia had their tail vein cannulated for drug administration and their tail artery cannulated for analysis of mean arterial pressure (MAP), pulse rate (PR), and arterial blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2, pH). After recovery, one set of rats received normal saline for control recording and was then divided into three experimental groups, two receiving dexmedetomidine (5 or 50 μg·kg−1) and one receiving normal saline (n = 7 per group). Another set of rats was divided into four groups receiving dexmedetomidine (50 μg·kg−1) followed 5 min later by 0.5 or 1 mg∙kg−1 atipamezole (selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) or efaroxan (α2-adrenoceptor/I1 receptor antagonist) (n = 6 or 8 per group). Recordings were performed 15 min after normal saline or dexmedetomidine administration. Results Compared with normal saline, dexmedetomidine (5 and 50 μg·kg−1) decreased respiratory frequency (fR, p = 0.04 and < 0.01, respectively), PR (both p < 0.01), and PaO2 (p = 0.04 and < 0.01), and increased tidal volume (both p = 0.049). Dexmedetomidine at 5 μg·kg−1 did not significantly change minute ventilation (V′E) (p = 0.87) or MAP (p = 0.24), whereas dexmedetomidine at 50 μg·kg−1 significantly decreased V′E (p = 0.03) and increased MAP (p < 0.01). Only dexmedetomidine at 50 μg·kg−1 increased PaCO2 (p < 0.01). Dexmedetomidine (5 and 50 μg·kg−1) significantly increased blood glucose (p < 0.01), and dexmedetomidine at 50 μg·kg−1 increased hemoglobin (p = 0.04). Supplemental atipamezole or efaroxan administration similarly prevented the 50 μg·kg−1 dexmedetomidine-related cardiorespiratory changes. Principal conclusion These results suggest that dexmedetomidine-related hypoventilation and hypertension are observed simultaneously and occur predominantly through activation of α2-adrenoceptors, but not I1 receptors, in spontaneously breathing adult rats.

2022 ◽  
Domênika Rubert Rossato ◽  
Higor Zuchetto Rosa ◽  
Jéssica Leandra Oliveira Rosa ◽  
Laura Hautrive Milanesi ◽  
Vinícia Garzella Metz ◽  

Abstract Amphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant drug frequently related to addiction, which is characterized by functional and molecular changes in the brain reward system, favoring relapse development and pharmacotherapies have shown low effectiveness. Considering the beneficial influences of tactile stimulation (TS) in different diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS), here we evaluated if TS applied in adult rats could prevent or minimize the AMPH-relapse behavior also accessing molecular neuroadaptations in the Nucleus accumbens (NAc). Following AMPH conditioning in the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, male rats were submitted to TS (15-min session, 3 times a day, for 8 days) during the drug abstinence period, which were re-exposed to the drug in the CPP paradigm for additional 3 days for relapse observation and molecular assessment. Our findings showed that besides AMPH relapse; TS prevented the dopamine transporter (DAT), dopamine 1 receptor (D1R), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), mu opioid receptor (MOR) increase and AMPH-induced delta FosB (ΔFosB). Based on these outcomes, we propose TS as a useful tool to treat psychostimulant addiction, which subsequent to clinical studies; it could be included in detoxification programs together with pharmacotherapies and psychological treatments already conventionally established.

2022 ◽  
pp. 002367722110659
Justyna K Hinchcliffe ◽  
Megan G Jackson ◽  
Emma SJ Robinson

The advancement and quality of science rely on research that is robust and unbiased in its experimental design, execution, analysis, and reproducibility. In preclinical research, a better understanding of animal emotions and refinement of their husbandry, housing, and handling are important goals in providing good animal welfare in a laboratory setting which underpins rigorous research quality. Induction of positive emotional state in animals is a key component of their well-being, and one approach is to increase their environmental complexity using, for example, ball pits or playpens in rats. In this study, we recorded 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) during animals’ exposure to the ball pit and playpen. We have previously shown that 50 kHz USVs provide a graded and quantifiable measure of an animal’s emotional state, and here find that access to the ball pit and playpen increases 50 kHz USVs, indicative of a more positive affective state. Using our affective bias test (ABT) we next quantified the animals’ emotional response to an aversive intervention and whether this could be attenuated by access to a playpen. The playpen exposure completely mitigated the negative affective state induced by an anxiogenic drug when compared with animals who experienced the drug in the home cage. Together, these findings suggest ball pits and playpens provide a simple and effective method to improve the welfare of laboratory rats and reduce the cumulative suffering they experience from their housing conditions and minor, aversive procedures.

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