albino rats
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Ehsan ◽  
M. U. Ijaz ◽  
A. Ashraf ◽  
S. Sarwar ◽  
A. Samad ◽  

Abstract Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. U. Ijaz ◽  
S. A. Majeed ◽  
A. Asharaf ◽  
T. Ali ◽  
K. A. Al-Ghanim ◽  

Abstract Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
H. M. A. Al-Sayed ◽  
M. A. Abdelaleem ◽  
H. A. Shawky

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Omnia N. Abdel-Rahman ◽  
Enas S. Abdel-Baky

Abstract Excessive intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as, diclofenac sodium (DS) may lead to toxicity in the rats. In this work, we aimed to examine the protective impact of lentil extract (LE) and folic acid (FA) on the hematological markers, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal function against diclofenac sodium (DS) in male albino rats. The rats (120-150 g) were divided into four equal groups randomly, the first group kept as the untreated control. The second group was administrated with DS (11.6 mg/kg b.wt. orally once/day). The third group was received DS+FA (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+76.9 microgram/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. The fourth group was treated with DS+LE (11.6 mg/kg b.wt.+500 mg/kg b.wt.) orally once/day. After four weeks, the results revealed that DS produced a significant decrease in the values of red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), hematocrit (HCT) and white blood cells (WBCs). On the other hand, there was a significant increase in the platelets count. Also, DS induced a renal deterioration; this was evidenced by the significant increase in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, Na, Ca, Mg as well as the nitric oxide (NO) level in the kidney tissue. Also, there were a significant reduction in the serum levels of potassium (K) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the kidney homogenates. Moreover, the findings in the rats treated by DS+LE or DS+FA showed a potential protection on the hematological markers, oxidative stress in the kidney tissue and the renal function disturbed by DS. LE and FA could play a potent role for the prevention the adverse hematological, the kidney tissue oxidative stress and the renal dysfunction caused by DS via their anti-oxidative and bioactive phytochemicals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 046-050
Chima Daniel ◽  
Onwugbuta Godpower Chukwuemeka ◽  
John Godson Nnamdi

Caffeine is an active ingredient of coffee (Nescafe) as one of the major sources of dietary antioxidant compounds which counteract the action of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which are the main contributors to oxidative stress. This research is carried out to investigate the role of caffeine in modulating superoxide dismutase and caffeine’s contribution to aging. Forty five sexually matured albino rats with weights ranging from 120-200g were purchased from the animal house of the Department of Anatomy, University of Port Harcourt. These animals were divided into five groups according to their weights and were housed in fifteen well ventilated cages containing sawdust which serves as beddings for the comfort of the animals and for easy removal of their feaces. They were fed daily with animal feed, water ad libitum and allowed to acclimatize for a period of one week, after which their weights were taken and caffeine administration commenced.The results obtained showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in the body weight of the animals on days 14 and 21 following the administration of 20mg/kg of the extract when compared with day 0 and a significant (p<0.05) increase in serum superoxide dismutase activity for 100mg/kg on day 14 when compared to the control. The findings of this study suggests that caffeine (NESCAFE) may have little or no significant effect on the activity of superoxide dismutase.

2022 ◽  
Nazik M.E. Mustafa ◽  
Shahenaz Satti ◽  
Nafisa A. Osman ◽  
Ahmed A.Gameel ◽  
Tarig M. El-hadiyah

Abstract The majority of people in Africa receive their basic health care through herbal treatments. Herbal medicine may negatively impact fetal development irreparably. This study examined the teratogenic potential of Solenstemma argel extract in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats were treated with Solenstemma argel from 7th to 16th day of gestation. The dosage used was 250 mg/kg, intraperitoneal.Solenstemma argel extract treated group showed fetal abnormalities appeared as body hemorrhage, limbs abnormalities and resorption of fetuses. These appears in 25% of the fetuses (P-value = 0.01) which is significantly differed from control group. Furthermore, histopathological findings of liver sections from fetuses of Solenstemma argel - treated mothers showed loose liver texture and hepatocytes hemorrhage.In this study, we conclude that the use Solenstemma argel extract during the organogenesis period in pregnant rats has the potential to cause teratogenic effects, as well as abnormalities in liver histopathology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (2) ◽  
pp. 309-314
Edmund Chidiebere Mbegbu ◽  
Rita Ifeoma Odo ◽  
Paul Tobechukwu Ozioko ◽  
Mark Ebubechukwu Awachie ◽  
Lotanna Gilbert Nwobi ◽  

Purpose: To investigate the ameliorative effect of aqueous garlic extract (AGEx) on cadmium chloride (CdCl2-induced) alterations in the blood and testicles of rats. Methods: A total of 24 male rats (160 - 200 g), randomly assigned into 4 groups (A - D; n = 6), were used to investigate the claimed protective effect of AGEx on blood and spermatogenic tissues following CdCl2-intoxication in albino rats. The rats in Group A served as controls and were given 5 mg/mL of deionized water. Group B rats were given 300 mg/kg of AGEx. Group C rats were given 2 mg/kg of CdCl2. Rats in Group D first received 2 mg/kg of CdCl2, and 300 mg/kg of AGEx 2 h later. All treatments were done every 48 h for a period of six weeks. Results: CdCl2 administration to group C rats reduced (p < 0.05) haematocrit value (PCV), concentration of haemoglobin (Hb), red cells count (RBC), total leucocytes count (tWBC), eosinophil, neutrophil, testicular weights and sperm reserves; but elevated (p < 0.05) lymphocytes count compared with the controls. AGEx 300 mg/kg in group D rats significantly reversed (p < 0.05) the altered parameters compared with the controls. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that administration of aqueous Allium sativum (garlic) extract to male rats enhances spermatogenesis, and ameliorates testicular and haematological alterations induced by cadmium poisoning. Therefore, the spermatogenic principle in AGEx is a potential candidate for the clinical management of male infertility.

YMER Digital ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (01) ◽  
pp. 175-180
M Shantha ◽  
R Senthamarai ◽  
T Shri Vijaya Kirubha ◽  

The leaves of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn are used traditionally in the treatment of gastric ulcer. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of ethanolic extract of Bauhinia tomentosa Linn. Leaves for antiulcer effect in pylorus ligated rats. The extract showed antiulcer activity by pyloric ligated model in albino rats. The results revealed significant reduction is total acidity and the ulceration.

Asmaa K. Abdelghany ◽  
Akram M. El-Kashlan ◽  
Hosny H. Emeash ◽  
Fatma Khalil

Abstract Background Animal models are used to provide an adequate investigation of brain-behaviour, physiological and path physiological relationships to give insight into human behaviour and the underlying processes of drugs affecting the nervous system. Scopolamine; SCO (alkaloid l-(2)-scopolamine [l-(2)-hyoscine]) has a competitive inhibitory effect on muscarinic receptors for acetylcholine. Thus, this study was designated to investigate the effect of long-term SCO treatment on locomotor, exploratory and anxiety-like behaviours of rats using open field test. Results The long-term SCO treatment induced a prominent increase in locomotion (hyperactivity) and exploratory behaviour of rats. In addition, anxiety-like behavioural patterns showed a non-significant difference in SCO treated compared to control. Serotonin level was significantly decreased in the scopolamine treated group in comparison with the control group. Conclusions Data suggested that long-term SCO treatment resulted in marked neurobehavioural alterations in a rat as an animal model.

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