preventive effect
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 218-229
Chongyang Li ◽  
Yu Fu ◽  
Hongjie Dai ◽  
Qiang Wang ◽  
Ruichang Gao ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 146 ◽  
pp. 112496
Jia Gu ◽  
Lin Zhao ◽  
Yu-Zhong Chen ◽  
Ya-Xin Guo ◽  
Yue Sun ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Fu Li ◽  
Haitao Xiang ◽  
Yue Gu ◽  
Ting Ye ◽  
Xu Lu ◽  

Abstract Background Innate immune pre-stimulation can prevent the development of depression-like behaviors in chronically stressed mice; however, whether the same stimulation prevents the development of anxiety-like behaviors in animals remains unclear. We addressed this issue using monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), a derivative of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that lacks undesirable properties of LPS but still keeps immune-enhancing activities. Methods The experimental mice were pre-injected intraperitoneally with MPL before stress exposure. Depression was induced through chronic social defeat stress (CSDS). Behavioral tests were conducted to identify anxiety-like behaviors. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and biochemical assays were employed to examine the gene and protein expression levels of pro-inflammatory markers. Results A single MPL injection at the dose of 400 and 800 μg/kg 1 day before stress exposure prevented CSDS-induced anxiety-like behaviors, and a single MPL injection (400 μg/kg) five but not 10 days before stress exposure produced similar effect. The preventive effect of MPL on anxiety-like behaviors was also observed in CSDS mice who received a second MPL injection 10 days after the first MPL injection or a 4 × MPL injection 10 days before stress exposure. MPL pre-injection also prevented the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex in CSDS mice, and inhibiting the central immune response by minocycline pretreatment abrogated the preventive effect of MPL on CSDS-induced anxiety-like behaviors and pro-inflammatory cytokine productions in the brain. Conclusions Pre-stimulation of the innate immune system by MPL can prevent chronic stress-induced anxiety-like behaviors and neuroinflammatory responses in the brain in mice.

Aquaculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 547 ◽  
pp. 737539
Huijing Cui ◽  
Yongping Xu ◽  
Cong Cong ◽  
Caixia Li ◽  
Xiaoyu Li ◽  

2021 ◽  
Hristian Staykov ◽  
Maria Lazarova ◽  
Yozljam Hassanova ◽  
Miroslava Stefanova ◽  
Lyubka Tancheva ◽  

Abstract This study evaluates some of the neuromodulatory mechanisms of the memory loss preventive effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in a scopolamine (Sco)-induced rat model of an Alzheimer’s disease (AD) type dementia. Our results confirmed that Sco administration induces significant memory impairment, worsens exploratory behaviour and habituation; it increases acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and induces pathological monoamine content changes in the brain prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. ALA administration prevented to a large extent Sco-induced memory impairment; it also improved exploratory behaviour and preserved habituation; it decreased AChE activity, reversing it to Control group levels and corrected aberrant monoamine levels in the brain prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. According to the data available, this is the first time that ALA-induced changes in AChE and monoamine levels in the brain prefrontal cortex and hippocampus (brain structures related to learning and memory) have been demonstrated in a Sco-induced rat model of AD type dementia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 1624-1630
Anga Dlakulu ◽  
Ishmael Mugari ◽  
Emeka E. Obioha

For over a century, the role of court sentencing on crime deterrence has generated significant debate. In this study, we explored the citizens’ perceptions on the role of court sentencing in South Africa’s Mthatha area. The findings are looked in the context of the broad theories of punishment namely: retributive theory, deterrence theory, preventive theory, reformative theory and compensation theory. A total of purposefully sampled 90 respondents were invited to participate in this study through closed-ended questionnaires. The univariate perception results of the study reveal that reformation of the offender, protection of the offender from being harmed by the victim in retaliation, and ensuring that the victims get justice are the most significant roles of court sentencing. Collectively, the reality that severe sentence scares potential criminals not to commit crime stands out and is the most correlated role of court sentencing. Court sentencing was also viewed to be having two pronged preventive effect on criminal activities. First, the criminal is incapacitated from engaging in criminal activities during the time of imprisonment; and second, the offender is removed from the environmental factors that led to offending. As part of the conclusion, the study recommends sentencing policies that mainly support reformation of offenders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 16-23
Jorge De Andres-Sanchez ◽  
Angel Belzunegui-Eraso ◽  
Sonia Fernández-Aliseda

Background: There are a wide number of assessments suggesting that being a member of a religious community inhibits adolescents’ risky behaviours and, consequently, can act as a protective factor against the consumption of smoking substances. Methods: We have analysed a structured questionnaire answered by 1935 adolescents from Tarragona (Spain). Results: We have found that variables linked to family were the principal explanatory factors of adolescents’ smoking habits. Living with two parents was a protective factor against tobacco and cannabis use since its Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) was clearly below 1 (p<0.01). So, whereas living with one parent showed an IRR>1 (p<0.05), adolescents that live without parents presented an IRR close 2 (p<0.05 for tobacco and p<0.01 for cannabis). However, having a religious confession also influence smoking substance use in adolescents (IRR close 0.85 with p<0.01). Conclusion: We found a clear preventive effect in belonging to a religious community. Moreover, this protective effect was less intense, but not statistically significant, for Catholics than for members of other confessions.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1764
Seoyon Yang ◽  
Yoo Jin Choo ◽  
Min Cheol Chang

(1) Background: Dysphagia is common in acute stroke patients and is a major risk factor for aspiration pneumonia. We investigated whether the early detection of dysphagia in stroke patients through screening could prevent the development of pneumonia and reduce mortality; (2) Methods: We searched the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases for relevant studies published up to November 2021. We included studies that performed dysphagia screening in acute stroke patients and evaluated whether it could prevent pneumonia and reduce mortality rates. The methodological quality of individual studies was evaluated using the Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions tool, and publication bias was evaluated by the funnel plot and Egger’s test; (3) Results: Of the 6593 identified studies, six studies met the inclusion criteria for analysis. The screening group had a significantly lower incidence of pneumonia than the nonscreening group did (odds ratio (OR), 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42 to 0.84; p = 0.003; I2, 66%). There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.33 to 1.13; p = 0.11; I2, 93%); (4) Conclusions: Early screening for dysphagia in acute stroke patients can prevent the development of pneumonia.

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