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Body Image ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 158-164
Susan J. Paxton ◽  
Siân A. McLean ◽  
Rachel F. Rodgers

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Erik D. Slawsky ◽  
Anjum Hajat ◽  
Isaac C. Rhew ◽  
Helen Russette ◽  
Erin O. Semmens ◽  

Abstract Background Research suggests that greenspace may confer neurocognitive benefits. This study examines whether residential greenspace is associated with risk of dementia among older adults. Methods Greenspace exposure was computed for 3047 participants aged 75 years and older enrolled in the Gingko Evaluation of Memory Study (GEMS) across four U.S. sites that prospectively evaluated dementia and its subtypes, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and mixed pathologies, using neuropsychiatric evaluations between 2000 and 2008. After geocoding participant residences at baseline, three greenspace metrics—Normalized Difference Vegetative Index, percent park overlap within a 2-km radius, and linear distance to nearest park—were combined to create a composite residential greenspace measure categorized into tertiles. Cox proportional hazards models estimated the associations between baseline greenspace and risk of incident all-cause dementia, AD, and Mixed/VaD. Results Compared to low residential greenspace, high residential greenspace was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (HR = 0.76 95% CI: 0.59,0.98) in models adjusted for multiple covariates. After additional adjustment for behavioral characteristics, Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 status, and other covariates, the association was slightly attenuated (HR = 0.82; 95% CI:0.63,1.06). Those exposed to medium levels of greenspace also had 28% lower risk (HR = 0.72; CI: 0.55, 0.95) of dementia compared to those with low greenspace in adjusted models. Subtype associations between high residential greenspace and AD were not statistically significant. Greenspace was not found to be significantly associated with mixed/vascular pathologies. Conclusions This study showed evidence for an association between residential greenspace and all-cause dementia among older adults. Future research with larger sample size, precise characterization of different dementia subtypes, and assessment of residential greenspace earlier in life may help clarify the role between exposure to greenspace and dementia risk.

2022 ◽  
Laura Baquedano ◽  
Javier Navarro ◽  
Yasmina José ◽  
Alexander Tristancho ◽  
Ana Ruiz ◽  

Abstract ObjectiveTo address the factors involved in hospital admission and medical follow up in postmenopausal women with COVID-19 diagnosis.MethodsRetrospective observational study. Postmenopausal women aged between 40-70 years since September 2020 until June 2021 with COVID-19 diagnosis were included. Of the 300 women cohort, 50 were receiving menopause hormone therapy (MHT)Results 288 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 56.20 years (+/-6.06y SD). Age (p=0.030), High blood pressure (HBP) (p=0.002), respiratory disorders (p=0.003), depression (p=0.028) and fibromyalgia (p=0.030) were associated with a greater risk for hospital admission, while MHT was found as a protective factor (p=0.042). Being a health professional (p<0.001), HBP (p=0.029), respiratory disorders (p=0.022), vitamin D deficiency (p=0.010), depression (p=0.005) and fibromyalgia (p=0.001) were related with a longer follow up while MHT was related with a shorter one (p=0.010). Regression analysis showed that HBP and respiratory disorders acted as independent factors for hospital admission while MHT and fibromyalgia were for the length of follow up. ConclusionsMHT has a positive impact in postmenopausal women with SARS-CoV-2 infection. HBP and respiratory disorders are associated with a higher risk of hospital admission of these patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yanfei Zheng ◽  
Tianxing Li ◽  
Ying Zhang ◽  
Hui Luo ◽  
Minghua Bai ◽  

Objective:This study investigated the COVID-19-prevention knowledge and practices of healthcare workers (HCWs), their psychological states concerning the return to work, and their trust and requirements in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to prevent and treat COVID-19. It is hoped that the study can serve as a reference for policy making during the resumption of work in other countries or regions experiencing similar situations.Methods:This study comprised a quantitative cross-sectional online survey design. Purposive sampling and Cluster sampling were used to recruit all HCWs working in public hospitals in Huangzhou District, Huanggang City, Hubei Province, China. From April 23 to May 14, 2020, surveys were sent electronically to all 13 public hospitals in this area.Results:In total, 2,079 responses were received and 2,050 completed forms were included. After analysis, 47.9 and 46.6% of HCWs indicated that they possessed very good knowledge or good knowledge of preventative measures, respectively. Multivariable log-binomial regression indicated that male, tertiary hospital, medical staff, and undergraduate/postgraduate qualification were associated with good knowledge. Good knowledge was also well-correlated with good practice (OR: 3.277; 95% CI: 2.734–3.928; P &lt; 0.01). 59.8% of HCWs reported worries about resuming work; especially asymptomatic infections. The Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) indicated that 10.8% of participants had mild anxiety, 1.5% moderate anxiety, and 0.1% severe anxiety. Female, divorced/widowed, and working in a high risk hospital (the Huangzhou District People's Hospital was used for throat swab examinations of returning workers) were risk factors for concerns about resuming work and anxiety symptoms. However, good preventive knowledge was a protective factor for anxiety. HCWs' trust in using TCM to treat COVID-19 was significantly higher than their trust in using TCM for prevention (P &lt; 0.001). Regarding preferences for preventative TCM products, oral TCM granules were the most preferred (62.4%). HCWs also indicated they wanted to know more about the clinical efficacy, applicable population, and adverse reactions of preventative TCM products (89.3, 81.1, and 81.4%, respectively).Conclusion:While HCWs had good knowledge of COVID-19 preventative measures, this did not eliminate the psychological impact of resumption of work. Promotion of COVID-19 prevention knowledge reduces the risk of infection, and alleviates the worries and anxiety symptoms of HCWs about resuming work (especially in administrative staff, those with low education, and those working in primary hospitals). Additional psychological support is required for female HCWs, divorced/widowed HCWs, and those working in high-risk hospitals. Finally, systematic trials of preventative TCM products are recommended.

Religions ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 76
Lorena Patricia Gallardo-Peralta ◽  
María Beatriz Fernández Lorca

Background: Chile is a highly religious country. Although a majority of the population describes itself as Catholic, there has been a substantial growth in Evangelism, especially among indigenous people. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse the relationship between Catholic and Evangelical religiosity in terms of identity and practices and depressive symptoms in the Mapuche and non-indigenous Chilean population. Methods: The study was conducted using secondary data from the Longitudinal Intercultural Relations Study of 2017, estimating linear regressions to explain variations on the PHQ-9 scale between the adult Mapuche and non-indigenous Chilean population by first including the controls variables, followed by religious identification, churchgoing, and prayer. Results: Social support, good health, and age showed a negative association with PHQ-9 in both groups. Being a woman and not having a partner were only positively related with depression in the non-indigenous group. A negative association was found between Evangelical religious identity and depressive symptoms among the Mapuche population, while churchgoing was negatively associated and prayer was positively associated with depression in the non-indigenous group. Conclusions: The findings confirm that religiosity is a protective factor against depressive symptomology in the Chilean population. However, the analysis reveals significant ethnic differences.

BMC Neurology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Simone Simoni ◽  
Pasquale Nigro ◽  
Marta Filidei ◽  
Giulia Cappelletti ◽  
Federico Paolini Paoletti ◽  

Abstract Background Reducing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomies with jejunal extension tubes (PEG-J) related complications is vital to the long-term preservation of duodenal levodopa infusion (DLI) in advanced Parkinson’s disease (APD). Here, we provide data on the frequency of complications for both the standard “pull” and the non-endoscopic, radiologic assisted, “push” replacement PEG-J techniques in APD. Methods We retrospectively identified all patients treated with DLI from October 2009 to January 2020 at the Movement Disorders Center. Patients features and demographics, PEG-J procedures, causes for any discontinuation, reported complications and mortality were collected. In this cohort, PEG-J replacements were performed using the standard “pull” procedure or the radiologic assisted “push” method. Descriptive statistical analysis, t-test and paired t-test with False Discovery Rate correction was performed. Results This retrospective study included 30 APD patients [median age 72 ± 5.6 years; mean disease duration 17.2 + 5.7 years]. Mean treatment duration was 35.6 (30.6) months. Overall, 156 PEG-J procedures were performed, and Nineteen patients (63.3%) had a total of 185 reported complications, 85 of which were peristomal complications. 17 (56.6%) underwent 100 replacement procedures due to complications. The most commonly reported complication for replacement was J-tube dislocation (36%). One patient discontinued treatment after 6 months, due to peripheral neuropathy. Six patients died for causes not related to DLI. PEG-J replacements performed with the “push” method had a higher turnover (5.6 vs. 7.6 mo.), but fewer reported complications (67 vs. 75%). Conclusion The overall rate of complications was lower for “push” technique. This result might have been due to a higher replacement turnover that acted as a protective factor.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Yinzhen Du ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Piniel Alphayo Kambey ◽  
Li Wang ◽  

Background: Constipation is a significant symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is important for the morphogenesis of the enteric nervous system and plays a critical role in the preservation of mucosal integrity under enteric glia surveillance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the serum levels of GDNF in patients with PD with and without constipation.Methods: This work included 128 patients with PD. The patients were classified into three groups: those with PD but no constipation (nCons-PD) (n = 49), those with prodromal stage constipation (Cons-Pro-PD) (n = 48), and those with clinical stage constipation (Cons-Clinic-PD) (n = 31). The association between serum GDNF concentration and constipation was explored using logical regression.Results: The nCons-PD group's mean GDNF levels were 528.44 pg/ml, which was higher than the Cons-Pro-PD group's 360.72 pg/ml and the Cons-Clinic-PD group's 331.36 pg/ml. The results of binary logistic regression indicated that GDNF was a protective factor in the prevention of constipation. Cons-Clinic-PD group had a higher score of MDS-UPDRS-II, MDS-UPDRS-III, MDS-UPDRS-IV, and a higher H-Y staging as compared with nCons-PD group. Relative to the nCons-PD group, Cons-Clinic-PD had higher NMSS scores, lower MoCA and PDSS scores, and were more likely to have RBD.Conclusions: GDNF serum levels are lower in patients with PD who are constipated. A low GDNF level is a potential risk factor for constipation in patients with PD.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Els D. Bakker ◽  
Ingrid S. van Maurik ◽  
Arenda Mank ◽  
Marissa D. Zwan ◽  
Lisa Waterink ◽  

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic poses enormous social challenges, especially during lockdown. People with cognitive decline and their caregivers are particularly at risk of lockdown consequences. Objective: To investigate psychosocial effects in (pre-)dementia patients and caregivers during second lockdown and compare effects between first and second lockdown. Methods: We included n = 511 (pre-)dementia patients and n = 826 caregivers from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort and via Alzheimer Nederland. All respondents completed a self-designed survey on psychosocial effects of COVID-19. We examined relations between experienced support and psychosocial and behavioral symptoms using logistic regression. In a subset of patients and caregivers we compared responses between first and second lockdown using generalized estimating equation. Results: The majority of patients (≥58%) and caregivers (≥60%) reported that family and friends, hobbies, and music helped them cope. Support from family and friends was strongly related to less negative feelings in patients (loneliness: OR = 0.3[0.1–0.6]) and caregivers (loneliness: OR = 0.2[0.1–0.3]; depression: OR = 0.4[0.2–0.5]; anxiety: OR = 0.4[0.3–0.6]; uncertainty: OR = 0.3[0.2–0.5]; fatigue: OR = 0.3[0.2–0.4]; stress: OR = 0.3[0.2–0.5]). In second lockdown, less psychosocial and behavioral symptoms were reported compared to first lockdown (patients; e.g., anxiety: 22% versus 13%, p = 0.007; apathy: 27% versus 8%, p < 0.001, caregivers; e.g., anxiety: 23% versus 16%, p = 0.033; patient’s behavioral problems: 50% versus 35%, p < 0.001). Patients experienced more support (e.g., family and friends: 52% versus 93%, p < 0.001; neighbors: 28% versus 66%, p < 0.001). Conclusion: During second lockdown, patients and caregivers adapted to challenges posed by lockdown, as psychosocial and behavioral effects decreased, while patients experienced more social support compared to first lockdown. Support from family and friends is a major protective factor for negative outcomes in patients and caregivers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 25 (1) ◽  
pp. E001-E007
Shengqin Yu ◽  
Jindong Zhang

Objective: Levosimendan is a novel drug often used to treat heart failure. We aimed to explore the effects of levosimendan preconditioning on left ventricular remodeling (LVR) after myocardial reperfusion in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients receiving the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 258 AMI patients treated from January 2018 to September 2020 were randomly divided into control and observation groups. Based on conventional drug therapy, levosimendan was given 30 min before PCI for the observation group, and dobutamine was intravenously injected for the control group. Baseline data, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) blood flow grade, myocardial injury markers, and LVR indices were compared, and the influencing factors for LVR were analyzed. Results: After treatment, various degrees of blood perfusion were found, and the TIMI grade was better than that before treatment in both groups (P < .05). The levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin T, and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) declined in both groups, more significantly in the observation group (P < .05). Left ventricular end-systolic diameter, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic volume declined, whereas left ventricular ejection fraction rose in both groups, more significantly in the observation group (P < .05). Age and BNP were risk factors for LVR, whereas levosimendan preconditioning was a protective factor (P < .05). Conclusion: Levosimendan preconditioning can protect cardiac function and promote the recovery of the left ventricular structure. Age and BNP are risk factors for LVR after myocardial reperfusion in AMI patients undergoing PCI, and levosimendan preconditioning is a protective factor.

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