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2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107823
Resham Thapa ◽  
Katherine L. Tully ◽  
Chris Reberg-Horton ◽  
Miguel Cabrera ◽  
Brian W. Davis ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 808 ◽  
pp. 152158
Carla Román ◽  
Miquel Peris ◽  
Joan Esteve ◽  
Miguel Tejerina ◽  
Jordi Cambray ◽  

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261109
Dil Thavarajah ◽  
Tristan J. Lawrence ◽  
Sarah E. Powers ◽  
Joshua Kay ◽  
Pushparajah Thavarajah ◽  

A primary criticism of organic agriculture is its lower yield and nutritional quality compared to conventional systems. Nutritionally, dry pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a rich source of low digestible carbohydrates, protein, and micronutrients. This study aimed to evaluate dry pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines using on-farm field selections to inform the development of biofortified organic cultivars with increased yield and nutritional quality. A total of 44 dry pea entries were grown in two USDA-certified organic on-farm locations in South Carolina (SC), United States of America (USA) for two years. Seed yield and protein for dry pea ranged from 61 to 3833 kg ha-1 and 12.6 to 34.2 g/100 g, respectively, with low heritability estimates. Total prebiotic carbohydrate concentration ranged from 14.7 to 26.6 g/100 g. A 100-g serving of organic dry pea provides 73.5 to 133% of the recommended daily allowance (%RDA) of prebiotic carbohydrates. Heritability estimates for individual prebiotic carbohydrates ranged from 0.27 to 0.82. Organic dry peas are rich in minerals [iron (Fe): 1.9–26.2 mg/100 g; zinc (Zn): 1.1–7.5 mg/100 g] and have low to moderate concentrations of phytic acid (PA:18.8–516 mg/100 g). The significant cultivar, location, and year effects were evident for grain yield, thousand seed weight (1000-seed weight), and protein, but results for other nutritional traits varied with genotype, environment, and interactions. “AAC Carver,” “Jetset,” and “Mystique” were the best-adapted cultivars with high yield, and “CDC Striker,” “Fiddle,” and “Hampton” had the highest protein concentration. These cultivars are the best performing cultivars that should be incorporated into organic dry pea breeding programs to develop cultivars suitable for organic production. In conclusion, organic dry pea has potential as a winter cash crop in southern climates. Still, it will require selecting diverse genetic material and location sourcing to develop improved cultivars with a higher yield, disease resistance, and nutritional quality.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Mariana Fonseca ◽  
Luke C. Heider ◽  
David Léger ◽  
J. Trenton Mcclure ◽  
Daniella Rizzo ◽  

Canada has implemented on-farm antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance systems for food-producing animals under the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (CIPARS); however, dairy cattle have not been included in that program yet. The objective of this manuscript was to describe the development and implementation of the Canadian Dairy Network for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance (CaDNetASR). An Expert Panel (EP) of researchers was created to lead the development of the dairy surveillance system. The EP initiated a draft document outlining the essential elements of the surveillance framework. This document was then circulated to a Steering Committee (SC), which provided recommendations used by the EP to finalize the framework. CaDNetASR has the following components: (1) a herd-level antimicrobial use quantification system; (2) annually administered risk factor questionnaires; and (3) methods for herd-level detection of AMR in three sentinel enteric pathogens (generic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp.) recovered from pooled fecal samples collected from calves, heifers, cows, and the manure pit. A total of 144 dairy farms were recruited in five Canadian provinces (British-Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Québec, and Nova-Scotia), with the help of local herd veterinarians and regional field workers, and in September 2019, the surveillance system was launched. 97.1 and 94.4% of samples were positive for E. coli, 63.8, and 49.1% of samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., and 5.0 and 7.7% of samples were positive for Salmonella spp., in 2019 and 2020, respectively. E. coli was equally distributed among all sample types. However, it was more likely that Campylobacter spp. were recovered from heifer and cow samples. On the other hand, it was more common to isolate Salmonella spp. from the manure pit compared to samples from calves, heifers, or cows. CaDNetASR will continue sampling until 2022 after which time this system will be integrated into CIPARS. CaDNetASR will provide online access to farmers and veterinarians interested in visualizing benchmarking metrics regarding AMU practices and their relationship to AMR and animal health in dairy herds. This will provide an opportunity to enhance antimicrobial stewardship practices on dairy farms in Canada.

Fermentation ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Khairina Jaman ◽  
Nurjannah Amir ◽  
Mohammed Ali Musa ◽  
Afifi Zainal ◽  
Liyana Yahya ◽  

Valorization of agro-food waste through anaerobic digestion (AD) is gaining prominence as alternative method of waste minimization and renewable energy production. The aim of this study was to identify the key parameters for digester performance subjected to kinetic study and semicontinuous operation. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests were conducted in two different operating conditions: without mixing (WM) and continuous mixing (CM). Three different substrates, including food waste (FW), chicken dung (CD), and codigestion of FW and CD (FWCD) were used. Further kinetic evaluation was performed to identify mixing’s effect on kinetic parameters and correlation of the kinetic parameters with digester performance (volatile solid removal (VS%) and specific methane production (SMP)). The four models applied were: modified Gompertz, logistic, first-order, and Monod. It was found that the CM mode revealed higher values of Rm and k as compared to the WM mode, and the trend was consistently observed in the modified Gompertz model. Nonetheless, the logistic model demonstrated good correlation of kinetic parameters with VS% and SMP. In the continuous systems, the optimum OLR was recorded at 4, 5, and 7 g VS/L/d for FW, CD, and FWCD respectively. Therefore, it was deduced that codigestion significantly improved digester performance. Electrical energy generation at the laboratory scale was 0.002, 0.003, and 0.006 kWh for the FW, CD, and FWCD substrates, respectively. Thus, projected electrical energy generation at the on-farm scale was 372 kWh, 382 kWh, and 518 kWh per day, respectively. Hence, the output could be used as a precursor for large-scale digester-system optimization.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
Francesco Tacconi ◽  
Katharina Waha ◽  
Jonathan Jesus Ojeda ◽  
Peat Leith

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Renan Caldas Umburanas ◽  
Jackson Kawakami ◽  
Elizabeth Anna Ainsworth ◽  
José Laércio Favarin ◽  
Leonardo Zabot Anderle ◽  

AbstractOn-farm soybean yield has increased considerably in the last 50 years in southern Brazil, but there is still little information about how selection and breeding for yield increase has changed the agronomic attributes of cultivars. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the changes in soybean yield, seed oil and protein concentration, and changes in plant attributes that might be associated with yield improvement of 26 soybean cultivars released over the past 50 years in southern Brazil, sown simultaneously in a common field environment for two growing seasons. The average rate of yield gain was 45.9 kg ha−1 yr−1 (2.1% ha−1 yr−1), mainly due increased seed number per area and harvest index. Over year of cultivar release, cultivars became less susceptible to lodging, as well as plant mortality reduced. Meanwhile, the seed oil concentration increased, and seed protein concentration decreased, which could have negative consequences for soybeans use and requires further attention for breeding of future cultivars. Breeders have successfully contributed to the annual rate of soybean yield increase in southern Brazil. By our results, as well as the official on-farm production data, there is no evidence of soybean yield reaching a plateau in the near future in southern Brazil.

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