innate immune
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2022 ◽  
Mouhamad Al-Moussawy ◽  
Hossam A. Abdelsamed ◽  
Fadi G. Lakkis

Livers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-29
Emilio Flint ◽  
Evangelos Triantafyllou ◽  
Christine Bernsmeier

TAM receptors (Tyro3, Axl and MerTK) are a family of tyrosine kinase receptors that are expressed in a variety of cell populations, including liver parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. These receptors are vital for immune homeostasis, as they regulate the innate immune response by suppressing inflammation via toll-like receptor inhibition and by promoting tissue resolution through efferocytosis. However, there is increasing evidence indicating that aberrant TAM receptor signaling may play a role in pathophysiological processes in the context of liver disease. This review will explore the roles of TAM receptors and their ligands in liver homeostasis as well as a variety of disease settings, including acute liver injury, steatosis, fibrosis, cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction and hepatocellular carcinoma. A better understanding of our current knowledge of TAM receptors in liver disease may identify new opportunities for disease monitoring as well as novel therapeutic targets. Nonetheless, this review also aims to highlight areas where further research on TAM receptor biology in liver disease is required.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 937
Laura Cervera ◽  
Carmen González-Fernández ◽  
Marta Arizcun ◽  
Alberto Cuesta ◽  
Elena Chaves-Pozo

The protozoan parasite Cryptocaryon irritans causes marine white spot disease in a wide range of fish hosts, including gilthead seabream, a very sensitive species with great economic importance in the Mediterranean area. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the immunity of gilthead seabream after a severe natural outbreak of C. irritans. Morphological alterations and immune cell appearance in the gills were studied by light microscopy and immunohistochemical staining. The expression of several immune-related genes in the gills and head kidney were studied by qPCR, including inflammatory and immune cell markers, antimicrobial peptides (AMP), and cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) molecules. Serum humoral innate immune activities were also assayed. Fish mortality reached 100% 8 days after the appearance of the C. irritans episode. Gill filaments were engrossed and packed without any space between filaments and included parasites and large numbers of undifferentiated and immune cells, namely acidophilic granulocytes. Our data suggest leukocyte mobilization from the head kidney, while the gills show the up-regulated transcription of inflammatory, AMPs, and CMC-related molecules. Meanwhile, only serum bactericidal activity was increased upon infection. A potent local innate immune response in the gills, probably orchestrated by AMPs and CMC, is triggered by a severe natural outbreak of C. irritans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gang Xu ◽  
Furong Qi ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Yu Liu ◽  
Xin Wang ◽  

COVID-19 patients show heterogeneous and dynamic immune features which determine the clinical outcome. Here, we built a single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) dataset for dissecting these complicated immune responses through a longitudinal survey of COVID-19 patients with various categories of outcomes. The data reveals a highly fluctuating peripheral immune landscape in severe COVID-19, whereas the one in asymptomatic/mild COVID-19 is relatively steady. Then, the perturbed immune landscape in peripheral blood returned to normal state in those recovered from severe COVID-19. Importantly, the imbalance of the excessively strong innate immune response and delayed adaptive immunity in the early stage of viral infection accelerates the progression of the disease, indicated by a transient strong IFN response and weak T/B-cell specific response. The proportion of abnormal monocytes appeared early and rose further throughout the severe disease. Our data indicate that a dynamic immune landscape is associated with the progression and recovery of severe COVID-19, and have provided multiple immune biomarkers for early warning of severe COVID-19.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Reginaldo G. Bastos ◽  
Heba F. Alzan ◽  
Vignesh A. Rathinasamy ◽  
Brian M. Cooke ◽  
Odir A. Dellagostin ◽  

Babesiosis is a disease caused by tickborne hemoprotozoan apicomplexan parasites of the genus Babesia that negatively impacts public health and food security worldwide. Development of effective and sustainable vaccines against babesiosis is currently hindered in part by the absence of definitive host correlates of protection. Despite that, studies in Babesia microti and Babesia bovis, major causative agents of human and bovine babesiosis, respectively, suggest that early activation of innate immune responses is crucial for vertebrates to survive acute infection. Trained immunity (TI) is defined as the development of memory in vertebrate innate immune cells, allowing more efficient responses to subsequent specific and non-specific challenges. Considering that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), a widely used anti-tuberculosis attenuated vaccine, induces strong TI pro-inflammatory responses, we hypothesize that BCG TI may protect vertebrates against acute babesiosis. This premise is supported by early investigations demonstrating that BCG inoculation protects mice against experimental B. microti infection and recent observations that BCG vaccination decreases the severity of malaria in children infected with Plasmodium falciparum, a Babesia-related parasite. We also discuss the potential use of TI in conjunction with recombinant BCG vaccines expressing Babesia immunogens. In conclusion, by concentrating on human and bovine babesiosis, herein we intend to raise awareness of BCG TI as a strategy to efficiently control Babesia infection.

Biocelebes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 113-124
Musjaya, M Guli

The immune sistem is a way of the body’s defense sistem to save the host from the invasion of outside pathogen. Based on how respon to disease, that differentiated into two immune system are innate and adaptive system. Because it an cant throgh the stomach, these pathogenic bacteria go to the small intestin as a site infection. In the intestine, V. cholerae bactesia adhere and colonize and invasion to intestinal epihelial cells. Protection mechanism  to V. cholerae are the natural defense presence of tick mucosa on the surface of epithelial cells can  inhibit pathogene to adhere tointestinal epithelial cells. One anothet defense namely innate immune system did by phagocytic cells to attac pathogen agent and adaptive immune system involves IgA to opsonization so that can increase intestinal mucosal immune system

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yi Ling Tang ◽  
Tiow Suan Sim ◽  
Kai Soo Tan

AbstractIn periodontal health, oral streptococci constitute up to 80% of the plaque biofilm. Yet, destructive inflammatory events of the periodontium are rare. This observation suggests that oral streptococci may possess mechanisms to co-exist with the host. However, the mechanisms employed by oral streptococci to modulate the innate immune response have not been well studied. One of the key virulence factors produced by oral streptococci is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In mammalian cells, H2O2 triggers the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key pathway mediating antioxidant defence. This study aimed to determine (1) if H2O2 producing oral streptococci activated the Nrf2 pathway in macrophages, and (2) if the activation of Nrf2 influenced the innate immune response. We found that oral streptococci downregulated the innate immune response in a H2O2 dependent manner through the activation of the Nrf2. The activation of the Nrf2 signalling pathway led to the inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFĸB), the key transcription factor regulating pro-inflammatory response. This study showed for the first time that oral streptococci are unlikely passive bystanders but could play an active role in the maintenance of periodontal health by preventing overt inflammation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Marine Peyneau ◽  
Vanessa Granger ◽  
Paul-Henri Wicky ◽  
Dounia Khelifi-Touhami ◽  
Jean-François Timsit ◽  

AbstractCOVID-19 can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to death in many individuals. Evidence of a deleterious role of the innate immune system is accumulating, but the precise mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the links between circulating innate phagocytes and severity in COVID-19 patients. We performed in-depth phenotyping of neutrophil and monocyte subpopulations and measured soluble activation markers in plasma. Additionally, anti-microbial functions (phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and NETosis) were evaluated on fresh cells from patients. Neutrophils and monocytes had a strikingly disturbed phenotype, and elevated concentrations of activation markers (calprotectin, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil extracellular traps) were measured in plasma. Critical patients had increased CD13low immature neutrophils, LOX-1 + and CCR5 + immunosuppressive neutrophils, and HLA-DRlow downregulated monocytes. Markers of immature and immunosuppressive neutrophils were strongly associated with severity. Moreover, neutrophils and monocytes of critical patients had impaired antimicrobial functions, which correlated with organ dysfunction, severe infections, and mortality. Together, our results strongly argue in favor of a pivotal role of innate immunity in COVID-19 severe infections and pleads for targeted therapeutic options.

2022 ◽  
Maria Fernanda Fernandes ◽  
John Zewen Chan ◽  
Chia Chun Joey Hung ◽  
Michelle Victoria Tomczewski ◽  
Robin Elaine Duncan

Aims: To study effects on cellular innate immune responses to novel genes ORF8 and ORF10, and the more conserved Membrane protein (M protein) from the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, either alone, or in combination with cannabidiol (CBD). Main Methods: HEK293 cells were transfected with a control plasmid, or plasmids expressing ORF8, ORF10, or M protein, and assayed for cell number and markers of apoptosis at 24 h, and expression of interferon and interferon-stimulated genes at 14 h. Key findings: A significant reduction in cell number, and increase in early and late apoptosis, was found after 24 h in cells where expression of viral genes was combined with 1-2 μM CBD treatment, but not in control-transfected cells treated with CBD, or in cells expressing viral genes but treated only with vehicle. CBD (2 μM) augmented expression of IFNγ, IFNλ1 and IFNλ2/3, as well as the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family members OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL, in cells expressing ORF8, ORF10, and M protein. CBD also augmented expression of these genes in control cells not expressing viral genes, without enhancing apoptosis. Significance: Our results demonstrate a poor ability of HEK293 cells to respond to SARS-CoV-2 genes alone, but suggest an augmented innate anti-viral response to these genes in the presence of CBD. Furthermore, our results indicate that CBD may prime components of the innate immune system, increasing readiness to respond to viral infection without activating apoptosis, and therefore could be studied for potential in prophylaxis.

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