BackgroundAllergic asthma, a chronic airway inflammatory disease, is a critical public health problem. Indoor house dust mites (HDMs) could cause allergic asthma. The prevalence of sensitization to Dermatophagoides microceras (Der m) was approximately 80% and is related to the immunoglobulin E crossing-reactivity of mites belonging to the same genus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) and Dermatophagoides farina (Der f). However, studies on Der m are scant.MethodsWe used integrated OMICs approaches to identify and characterize the group 2 mite allergen-like protein in Der m (Der m 2). We established a Der m 2-induced allergic asthma mouse model and treated the mice with a fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP-fve) isolated from Flammulina veluptipes to evaluate the allergenicity of Der m 2 and the immunomodulatory effects of FIP-fve.ResultsBy performing de novo draft genome assembly and comparative genome analysis, we identified the putative 144-amino acid Der m 2 in silico and further confirmed its existence through liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Der m 2 is a lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-binding protein. Thus, we examined the LPS-binding activity of recombinant Der m 2 by performing molecular docking analysis, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP), and a pull-down assay. Der m 2 elicited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, and induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Furthermore, in mice sensitized with Der m 2, the administration of FIP-fve in either the earlier stage or the late stage, FIP-fve alleviated allergic asthma by moderating airway inflammation and remodeling.ConclusionsDer m 2 induced inflammatory responses in cell and mouse models. FIP-fve alleviated inflammation in Der m 2-induced asthma in mice by exerting an immunomodulatory effect.
BackgroundSubcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is an effective treatment for children with allergic rhinitis (AR), but its efficacy fluctuates among patients. There are no reliable candidate biomarkers for monitoring and predicting the response to SCIT. The present study aims to identify novel biomarkers for early predicting the efficacy of SCIT in pediatric AR patients based on multiple cytokine profiling.MethodsWe prospectively recruited 72 children with house dust mite (HDM)-induced AR who were assigned to receive SCIT. The serum samples were collected and multiple cytokine profiling was conducted by Luminex assay at baseline. All patients were followed-up for 1 year and then categorized into effective and ineffective group based on their efficacy, and levels of 48 selected cytokines were tested and compared between the two groups. The potential cytokines were further validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a cohort with 54 responders and 26 non-responders.ResultsSixty-nine of 72 children completed one-year follow-up schedule with 46 included in effective group and 23 in ineffective group. The results of multiple cytokine profiling showed that 15 cytokines (eotaxin, G-CSF, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-13, IL-15, IL-16, IL-4, MIF, MIP-1α, RANTES, SCF, SDF-1α and VEGF) were dysregulated between effective and ineffective group (all P < 0.05). Unadjusted and adjusted multivariate analysis models highlighted that serum eotaxin, IFN-γ, IL-4 and MIF levels closely associated with the efficacy of SCIT in pediatric HDM-induced AR patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves revealed potential values of these four biomarkers in predicting the response to SCIT. Further ELISA validation results in the cohort of 80 pediatric patients demonstrated that serum eotaxin and IL-4 levels were elevated in responders while IFN-γ levels decreased in responders (all P < 0.05). ROC curves demonstrated that serum IL-4 exhibited more reliable accuracy in predicting SCIT efficacy than eotaxin and IFN-γ.ConclusionOur discover–validation study suggested that cytokines including IL-4, eotaxin and IFN- γ may serve as robust biomarkers for early predicting response of SCIT in children with HDM-induced AR. These results strengthen the evidence that cytokines were associated with the response of SCIT and contributed to understand its underlying therapeutic mechanisms.
Introduction: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa that can be modeled using Controlled Allergen Exposure Facilities (CACF). Recently, we clinically validated the house dust mite (HDM) Environmental Exposure Unit (EEU) facility. In the current study, we aimed to assess biological responses in the blood following HDM exposure in the HDM-EEU.Methods: Fifty-five participants passed a screening visit, where they provided consent and completed a skin prick test (SPT), then attended a modest or higher HDM exposure session. Baseline and post-exposure blood samples were collected. Complete blood counts with differentials were measured, and isolated serum was used to determine Dermatophagoides farinae- and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-specific IgE (sIgE) and cytokine concentrations (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α).Results: HDM-allergic participants had significantly greater SPT wheal sizes than healthy controls. sIgE concentrations were significantly greater in allergic participants, with a strong correlation between Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Serum eosinophil counts were significantly decreased post-exposure for allergic participants. White blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts were significantly increased for both allergic and non-allergic participants post-exposure. Serum IL-13 concentrations were significantly reduced post-exposure in allergics while TNF-α was significantly reduced in non-allergics.Conclusion: The HDM-EEU is a useful model for investigating biologic mechanisms of HDM-induced AR. Allergic participants produced measurable biological changes compared to healthy controls following allergen exposure, specifically with serum expression of eosinophils and related markers, namely IL-5, which promotes the proliferation and differentiation of eosinophils, and IL-13, a cytokine released by eosinophils. The exact mechanisms at play require further investigation.
Indoor environments may impact human health due to chemical pollutants in the indoor air and house dust. This study aimed at comparing the bioavailability and distribution of PFOA following both an inhalation and an oral exposure to PFOA coated house dust in rats. In addition, extractable organofluorine (EOF) was measured in different tissue samples to assess any potential influence of other organofluorine compounds in the experimental house dust. Blood samples were collected at sequential time points after exposure and at the time of termination; lung, liver and kidney were collected for quantification of PFOA and EOF. The concentration of PFOA in plasma increased rapidly in both exposure groups attaining a Cmax at 3 h post exposure. The Cmax following inhalation was four times higher compared to oral exposures. At 48 h post exposure, the levels of PFOA in plasma, liver and kidney were twice as high from inhalation exposures. This shows that PFOA is readily bioavailable and has a rapid systemic distribution following an inhalation- or oral exposure to house dust coated with PFOA. The proportion of PFOA to EOF corresponded to approximately 54-68% and >80% in plasma and tissues, respectively. The mass balance between EOF and target PFOA indicate that there might be other unknown PFAS precursor and/or fluorinated compounds that co-existed in the house dust sample that might have accumulated in rats.
Purpose: Both subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are effective in reducing symptoms and medication scores and inducing long-term efficacy in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR). However, SLIT has been associated with poor patient adherence. This study investigates the factors impacting dropout rates from SLIT in house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized AR patients.Methods: A retrospective study was performed to analyze dropout rates and reasons in AR patients receiving Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) SLIT with a follow-up period of 2 years.Results: A total of 719 HDM-sensitized AR patients received Der f-SLIT. Dropout rates increased with time and most occurred after 1 year of SLIT. By month 24, 654 (91%) patients had discontinued SLIT. The dropout rates by month 24 were 100, 90.1, and 91.1% in children <5 years old, children aged 5–18 years old, and adults ≥ 18 years old, respectively. Combination with allergic asthma and mono- or multi-sensitization to other aeroallergens did not affect the dropout rates. The most common self-reported reasons for dropouts were refusal of continuation, dissatisfaction with the efficacy, transition to SCIT, and adverse effects. Refusal of continuation increased with age, whereas transition to SCIT decreased with age. Ninety-seven cases transitioned from SLIT to SCIT, and the transition rates increased with time. Comorbid allergic asthma did not affect the transition rates. However, multi-sensitization was associated with a slightly higher rate of transition to SCIT. The most common reason for the transition was dissatisfaction with the efficacy (54.6%), which was only reported by patients older than 5 years. For children who began SLIT at younger than 5 years old, the most common reason (81.2%) for transition was age reaching 5 years.Conclusions: HDM-SLIT has a very high dropout rate, which is mainly due to refusal of continuation and dissatisfaction with the efficacy. Transitioning from SLIT to SCIT may help keep these patients on AIT and thus increase adherence and long-term efficacy.
Objectives: To determine whether the levels of T-helper (TH) 2 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5) in allergic reactions are allergen dependent and evaluate the impact of various treatment strategies on the levels of these cytokines.Methods: The PubMed search engine was used from inception until January 2021. The random-effects residual maximum likelihood model was performed, and effect sizes were estimated using the Hedge’s g statistic. All data analysis was performed using STATA 16.0 (StataCorp LP, TX, USA). Results: Fourteen studies reporting on 794 participants were included in this study. House dust mite was associated with eliciting a stronger immune response mediated by both IL-4 and IL-5 when compared to pollen. Whereas a mixture of house dust mite and pollen was associated with IL-4-weighted inflammation. Comparisons of IL-4 and IL-5 levels amongst the allergens showed significant differences. The treatment with anti-corticosteroids or allergen-specific immunotherapy was effective in normalising the TH2 responses and alleviating allergy symptoms.Conclusion: TH2-mediated inflammation in allergic reactions is allergen-dependent. Therefore, the type of allergen should be considered when using cytokine-targeting biologics in allergic reactions.
ABSTRACTObjective: The avoidance of house dust mite (HDM) is crucial in the management of HDM allergies. We aimed to demonstrate the implementation and perspective of the parents whose children had HDM allergy/sensitization to HDM avoidance measures. Materials and Methods: Parents of the patients with HDM sensitization were interviewed via telephone questionnaires.Results: One hundred and three patients with asthma (73.8%), allergic rhinitis (AR) (77.7%) and/or atopic dermatitis (AD) (29.1%) aged four to 18 years were included in the study. Seventy-one patients had multiple allergic diseases (68.9%). Of the parents, 39.8% fully adhered to HDM avoidance measures, and their education status was as follows: 41.5% illiterate/elementary/middle school, 31.7% high school, and 26.8% associate’s degree/university. In addition, 32.2% of the mothers who were partially adherent (n=62) were illiterate or had graduated from elementary/middle school, 33.9% had graduated from high school, and 33.9% had an associate’s degree or had graduated from university. Forty-one (39.8%) mothers were working, and most of them (61%) had graduated from university or had an associate’s degree. Nearly half of the mothers who were partially adherent to HDM measures were working (n=32). In the multivariate analysis, the risk factors for partial adherence to measures was to be a working mother [OR:4.072, 95%CI: 1.350-12.882, p=0.013] and to have the belief that the measures were useless [OR:4.886, 95%CI: 1.499-15.923, p=0.008]. However, no relationship was shown between adherence to the measures and the severity of AR or AD, asthma control status and having multiple allergic diseases.Conclusion: Full adherence to HDM avoidance measures was considerably dependent on the mothers’ working status and belief in the ineffectiveness of the measures whereas there was no relationship to the severity of allergic diseases. This study also revealed how the education status of the mothers affected the adherence to allergen avoidance measures in real life.Keywords: Children, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus,Dermatophagoides farinae, house dust mites, avoidance measures, parents, pediatrics, questionnaire
AbstractEvidence regarding asthma’s impact on children’s daily lives is limited. This prospective and cross-sectional, observational, multicenter study assessed school/work and activity impairment in children and adolescents with allergic asthma and their caregivers and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) effects. Included patients were schooled children and adolescents (5 to 17 years) with allergic asthma due to house dust mites (HDM). Impairment of school/work (i.e., absenteeism and presenteeism) and activity was measured in patients and their caregivers using the Work Productivity Impairment Questionnaire plus Classroom Impairment Questions: Allergy Specific (WPAI + CIQ:AS). HDM allergic patients with school impairment received subcutaneous AIT with a MicroCrystalline Tyrosine-associated allergoid. WPAI + CIQ:AS and effectiveness variables were compared between baseline and 1-year post-AIT. Of the 113 patients included, 59 (52.2%) and 51 (45.1%) showed school and activity impairment, respectively, missing a mean (SD) of 37.6 (24.4) % and 42.6 (25.6) % of school and activity time, respectively. Twenty-six (23%) caregivers reported activity impairment and, of the 79 (69.9%) employed, 30 (38%) reported work impairment. Of the 65 patients with school/activities impairment, 41 (63.1%) received AIT, of which 21 (51.2%) completed 1 year of treatment. Effectiveness variables and WPAI + CIQ:AS significantly improved: Mean (SD) school impairment decreased from 39.7 (26.7) to 2.1 (7.1) % (p < 0.001) and activity impairment from 46.2 (34.6) to 1.4 (3.6) % (p < 0.001).Conclusion: Allergic asthma due to HDMs results in school/work and activity impairment in children and adolescents and their caregivers. One year of AIT provided clinical benefits and reduced school and activity impairment.
What is Known:• Allergic asthma impairs children’s school performance and daily activities.• Allergen immunotherapy modifies allergic disease course and ameliorates its symptoms.
What is New:• Asthma symptoms due to allergy to house dust mites impair children’s school attendance and productivity and daily activity and their caregivers’ work performance and daily lives.• Allergen immunotherapy with a house dust mite MicroCrystalline Tyrosine (MCT)-associated allergoid seems to provide clinical benefits, associated with decreased school and activity impairment, supporting it as an effective treatment option.