liver and kidney
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
B. Ahmad ◽  
I. Ilahi ◽  
A. M. Yousafzai ◽  
M. Attaullah ◽  
A. Rahim ◽  

Abstract The study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Zizyphus oxyphyla leaves methanolic (ZOX-LME), on serum liver, kidney and hematology along with other serum parameters in Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rabbits. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, six rabbits in each. These were: group NC (normal control), group, TC (toxic control) and group ST i.e. silymarine administered group at dose rate (50) mg/kg body weight (BW). Group ET1 and group ET2 treated with (ZOX-LME) at dose 200 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW. CCl4 administration caused significant (P> 0.05) impairment in serum liver enzymes, blood factors and other serum indices. Treatment with (ZOX-LME) significantly (P<0.05) reduced and normalized the levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and hematological indices. Also significant (P< 0.05) reduction was observed in creatinine, urea, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and albumin and glucose concentrations. The altered levels of lipid profile and serum electrolytes (Ca, Mg, Cl, Na, K, and P) were significantly (P<0.05) change toward normal levels with (ZOX-LME) feeding. In addition (ZOX-LME) ingestion caused significant improvement in GSH, GST and CAT levels, while reducing the TBARS levels, exhibited antioxidant capacity. Also (ZOX-LME) showed increase inhibition against percent scavenging of 2, 2-diphenile-1-picrylehydrazyle (DPPH) free radical. Significant (P<0.05) normalizing effects were observed with high dose 400 mg/kg BW of (ZOX-LME and were equivalent to silymarine administered groups. The histological study of liver supported the hepatoprotective and renal curative activity of (ZOX-LME).

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
I. Liaqat ◽  
A. Mahreen ◽  
M. Arshad ◽  
N. Arshad

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 126
Ana Lilia Peralta-Amaro ◽  
Melina Ivone Tejada-Ruiz ◽  
Karen Lilian Rivera-Alvarado ◽  
Orestes de Jesús Cobos-Quevedo ◽  
Patricia Romero-Hernández ◽  

Kawasaki disease (KD) is a medium-vessel vasculitis that is typically presented during childhood; fewer than 100 cases of KD have been reported worldwide in adult patients who met the criteria according to the American College of Rheumatology. This study presents the case of an 18-year-old patient with no previous history of any disease, who presented atypical KD with liver and kidney dysfunction, with a good response to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The symptoms began 22 days after the application of the COVID-19 vaccine (nonreplicating viral vector Vaxzevria), and other conditions were ruled out. The term Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI)encompasses all the reactions that follow the application of any vaccine with no necessary causal relationship and can be due to the vaccine product, quality of the vaccine, immunization errors, or anxiety or just happen to be coincident events. These reactions should be reported so that clinicians can identify compatible cases and consider that the presentation of this disease, despite being atypical, can be manifested in adult patients. Likewise, case reports are an important basis for the pharmacovigilance of vaccines.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 559
Karim Samy El-Said ◽  
Shaimaa Hussein ◽  
Barakat M. Alrashdi ◽  
Heba A. Mahmoud ◽  
Mahrous A. Ibrahim ◽  

Heavy metals intoxication causes several health problems that necessitate finding new protective and therapeutic approaches. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of Musa sp. leaves extract (MLE) on hepato-renal toxicities induced by cadmium (Cd) in male mice. The phytochemical screening, metal chelating activity (MCA), and the median lethal dose (LD50) of MLE were determined. Fifty CD-1 male mice were used and intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with MLE (1000 to 5000 mg/kg b.wt) for MLE LD50 determination. Another 50 mice were used for evaluating the effect of MLE on Cd toxicity. Blood samples were collected for hematological, liver, and kidney functions assessments. Liver tissue homogenates were used for determination of oxidant/antioxidant parameters. Liver and kidney tissues were harvested for histopathological and molecular investigations. MLE showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities. The MCA and LD50 of the MLE were 75 µg/mL and 3000 mg/kg b.wt, respectively. MLE showed beneficial therapeutic activity against hepato-renal toxicities in Cd-intoxicated mice, evidenced by improving the hematological, biochemical, histopathological, and molecular alterations.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 133
Outi I. Mielonen ◽  
Diogo Pratas ◽  
Klaus Hedman ◽  
Antti Sajantila ◽  
Maria F. Perdomo

Formalin fixation, albeit an outstanding method for morphological and molecular preservation, induces DNA damage and cross-linking, which can hinder nucleic acid screening. This is of particular concern in the detection of low-abundance targets, such as persistent DNA viruses. In the present study, we evaluated the analytical sensitivity of viral detection in lung, liver, and kidney specimens from four deceased individuals. The samples were either frozen or incubated in formalin (±paraffin embedding) for up to 10 days. We tested two DNA extraction protocols for the control of efficient yields and viral detections. We used short-amplicon qPCRs (63–159 nucleotides) to detect 11 DNA viruses, as well as hybridization capture of these plus 27 additional ones, followed by deep sequencing. We observed marginally higher ratios of amplifiable DNA and scantly higher viral genoprevalences in the samples extracted with the FFPE dedicated protocol. Based on the findings in the frozen samples, most viruses were detected regardless of the extended fixation times. False-negative calls, particularly by qPCR, correlated with low levels of viral DNA (<250 copies/million cells) and longer PCR amplicons (>150 base pairs). Our data suggest that low-copy viral DNAs can be satisfactorily investigated from FFPE specimens, and encourages further examination of historical materials.

2022 ◽  
Felipe José Santos da Silva ◽  
Dorgival Morais de Lima Júnior ◽  
Ricardo Romão Guerra ◽  
Vitor Visintin Silva de Almeida ◽  
Julimar do Sacramento Ribeiro ◽  

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the histological characteristics in the digestive and renal systems of lambs fed diets containing coconut by-product (CB). A total of 35 male lambs with an initial weight of 16.9 ± 2.93 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five levels of CB in the diet (0; 4.8; 9.6; 14.4 and 19.2% in total dry matter). Samples of the liver, kidney, rumen, and intestine were histomorphometrically evaluated and the data were submitted to regression analysis, at a 5% error probability. The inclusion of CB linearly decreased the dry matter intake and caused a quadratic effect for the height of ruminal papillae, absorption area, epithelium thickness, as well as for average daily gain. The inclusion of CB linearly increased the mucous layer and reduced the submucosal layer, as well as promoted a decrease in goblet cells in the small intestine. The inclusion of BC did not influence hepatic glycogen, additionally, the histopathological examination did not reveal liver damage or congestion, vacuolization, and necrosis of the renal tissue. Therefore, our results indicate that CB can be included in lambs diet up to the level of 7.2% without causing changes in the histomorphometry characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract and changes in liver and kidney tissue that compromise animal performance.

Eman I. Hassanen ◽  
Ahmed M. Hussien ◽  
Sally Mehanna ◽  
Marwa A. Ibrahim ◽  
Neven H. Hassan

Abstract Pesticides are viewed as a major wellspring of ecological contamination and causing serious risky consequences for people and animals. Imidacloprid (IM) and hexaflumuron (HFM) are extensively utilized insect poisons for crop assurance on the planet. A few investigations examined IM harmfulness in rodents, but its exact mechanism hasn’t been mentioned previously as well as the toxicity of HFM doesn’t elucidate yet. For this reason, the present study was designed to explore the mechanism of each IM and HFM–evoked rat liver and kidney toxicity and to understand its molecular mechanism. 21 male Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups, as follows: group (1), normal saline; group (2), IM; and group (3), HFM. Both insecticides were orally administered every day for 28 days at a dose equal to 1/10 LD50 from the active ingredient. After 28 days postdosing, rats were anesthetized to collect blood samples then euthanized to collect liver and kidney tissue specimens. The results showed marked changes in walking, body tension, alertness, and head movement with a significant reduction in rats’ body weight in both IM and HFM receiving groups. Significant increases in MDA levels and decrease of GHS levels were recorded in liver and kidney homogenates of either IM or HFM groups. Liver and kidney tissues obtained from both pesticide receiving groups showed extensive histopathological alterations with a significant increase in the serum levels of ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine and a decrease in total proteins, albumin, and globulin levels. In addition, there was upregulation of the transcript levels of casp-3, JNK, and HO-1 genes with strong immunopositivity of casp-3, TNF-ὰ, and NF-KB protein expressions in the liver and kidneys of rats receiving either IM or HFM compared with the control group. In all studied parameters, HFM caused hepatorenal toxicity more than those induced by IM. We can conclude that each IM and HFM provoked liver and kidneys damage through overproduction of ROS, activation of NF-KB signaling pathways and mitochondrial/JNK-dependent apoptosis pathway.

Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Dahye Jeong ◽  
Hyosook Shin ◽  
Jinhee Lee ◽  
Junyoung Yang ◽  
Kikyung Jung ◽  

Chlorobutanol (CB) is used as a preservative in cosmetics and has antibacterial activity. This study investigated the single- and repeated-dose 28-day oral toxicity of a CB solvent in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. For the single-dose oral toxicity study, a dose of 62.5, 125, or 250 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg b.w.) of CB was given once orally via gavage. For the repeated-dose 28-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 100 mg/kg b.w./day, and the middle, middle-low, and low doses were set to 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively. Body weight was not significantly changed in the repeated-dose toxicity study. Relative liver and kidney weights were significantly increased in both sexes of the 100 mg/kg b.w./day treatment group. However, there were histopathological changes in liver and kidney for females and males, respectively. These data suggested that the approximate lethal dose (ALD) of CB was over 250 mg/kg b.w./day in the single-dose study, and the no adverse effect level (NOAEL) for CB was over 50 and 12.5 mg/kg b.w./day for female and male rats in the repeated-dose toxicity study.

Ali Allam ◽  
Ahmed Abdeen ◽  
Hari Prasad Devkota ◽  
Samar S. Ibrahim ◽  
Gehan Youssef ◽  

Deltamethrin (DLM) is a synthetic pyrethroid with anti-acaricide and insecticidal properties. It is commonly used in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Humans and animals are exposed to DLM through the ingestion of polluted food and water, resulting in severe health issues. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a prodrug of L-cysteine, the precursor to glutathione. It can restore the oxidant-antioxidant balance. Therefore, this research aimed to examine whether NAC may protect broiler chickens against oxidative stress, at the level of biochemical and molecular alterations caused by DLM intoxication. The indicators of liver and kidney injury in the serum of DLM-intoxicated and NAC-treated groups were examined. Furthermore, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant markers, superoxide dismutase activity, and apoptotic gene expressions (caspase-3 and Bcl-2) were investigated. All parameters were significantly altered in the DLM-intoxicated group, suggesting that DLM could induce oxidative damage and apoptosis in hepato-renal tissue. The majority of the changes in the studied parameters were reversed when NAC therapy was used. In conclusion, by virtue of its antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, NAC enabled the provision of significant protection effects against DLM-induced hepato-renal injury.

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