Neuroinflammation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of West syndrome (WS). Inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β(IL-1β), have been reported to be associated with epilepsy. However, the assessment of cytokine changes in humans is not always simple or deterministic. This study aimed to elucidate the immunological mechanism of WS. We examined the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood cells collected from 13 patients with WS, using flow cytometry, and measured their serum cytokine levels. These were compared with those of 10 age-matched controls. We found that the WS group had significantly higher percentages of inter IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA)-positive monocytes, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in their CD8+ T cells than the control group. Interestingly, the group with sequelae revealed significantly lower levels of intracellular IFN-γ and IL-6 in their CD8+ T and CD4+ T cells, respectively, than the group without sequelae. There was no correlation between the ratios of positive cells and the serum levels of a particular cytokine in the WS patients. These cytokines in the peripheral immune cells might be involved in the neuroinflammation of WS, even in the absence of infectious or immune disease. Overall, an immunological approach using flow cytometry analysis might be useful for immunological studies of epilepsy.
Background. To observe the effect of Huaiqihuang granules combined with comprehensive nursing intervention on children with primary nephrotic syndrome (PNS) and its effect on renal function index. Methods. A total of 104 patients were included, and the patients were randomly divided into two groups, with 52 cases in each group. The control group was treated with glucocorticoid, and the study group was treated with Huaiqihuang granules. The clinical efficacy of the two groups was observed. The levels of TG, TC, EGFR, 24 h UTP, BUN, Scr, IgA, IgG, IgM, IFN-γ and TNF-α were compared between two groups before and after treatment. The incidence of adverse reactions and recurrence rate after treatment were compared between the two groups. Results. The effective rate of the study group (94.23%) was significantly higher than that of the control group (78.85%). Before treatment, there was no significant difference in TG and TC levels between the two groups. After treatment, the levels of TG and TC in both groups were decreased, and the decrease was more obvious in the study group. Compared with before treatment, the levels of 24 h UTP, BUN, Scr, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in both groups were significantly decreased after treatment, while EGFR, IgA, IgG, and IgM levels were significantly increased. Compared with the control group, the changes of each index in the study group were more obvious after treatment. After treatment, the incidence of adverse reactions and recurrence rate in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group. Conclusions. Huaiqihuang granules combined with comprehensive nursing treatment in children with PNS can reduce the occurrence of recent recurrence and adverse reactions and improve the cellular immune function and renal function.
Cryptosporidium parvum infection is very common in infants, immunocompromised patients, or in young ruminants, and chitosan supplementation exhibits beneficial effects against the infection caused by C. parvum. This study investigated whether chitosan supplementation modulates the gut microbiota and mediates the TLR4/STAT1 signaling pathways and related cytokines to attenuate C. parvum infection in immunosuppressed mice. Immunosuppressed C57BL/6 mice were divided into five treatment groups. The unchallenged mice received a basal diet (control), and three groups of mice challenged with 1 × 106 C. parvum received a basal diet, a diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg/day paromomycin, and 1 mg/kg/day chitosan, and unchallenged mice treated with 1 mg/kg/day chitosan. Chitosan supplementation regulated serum biochemical indices and significantly (p < 0.01) reduced C. parvum oocyst excretion in infected mice treated with chitosan compared with the infected mice that received no treatment. Chitosan-fed infected mice showed significantly (p < 0.01) decreased mRNA expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared to infected mice that received no treatment. Chitosan significantly inhibited TLR4 and upregulated STAT1 protein expression (p < 0.01) in C. parvum-infected mice. 16S rRNA sequencing analysis revealed that chitosan supplementation increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes/Bacteroides, while that of Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, Defferribacteres, and Firmicutes decreased (p < 0.05). Overall, the findings revealed that chitosan supplementation can ameliorate C. parvum infection by remodeling the composition of the gut microbiota of mice, leading to mediated STAT1/TLR4 up- and downregulation and decreased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α, and these changes resulted in better resolution and control of C. parvum infection.
COVID-19 infection induces inflammation by increasing cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-6, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. IL-1b is generated by the involvement of caspase-1. Therefore, caspase-1 inhibitor can be potential for inflammation therapy caused by COVID-19 infection. This study aims to determine the potential of blumeatin and luteolin as anti-inflammatory agents by inhibiting caspase-1 using a molecular docking approach. This study was carried out by caspase-1 (PDB ID: 1RWK) preparation, blumeatin and luteolin structure optimization, docking protocol validation, and docking of blumeatin and luteolin on caspase-1. Bluematin and luteolin had a binding affinity of -5,63 kcal/mol and -5,93 kcal/mol, lower than Q158 native ligand (-3.92 kcal/mol). Similar amino acid residues in hydrogen bonds interaction were observed between Q158 native ligand, blumeatin, and luteolin with caspase-1 (GLN 283 and ARG 179). Blumeatin and luteolin are potentially anti-inflammation agents through the inhibition of the caspase-1 in silico.
The susceptibility to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in early life has been associated with a deficient T-helper cell type 1 (Th1) response. Conversely, healthy adults generally do not exhibit severe illness from RSV infection. In the current study, we investigated whether Th1 cytokine IFN-γ is essential for protection against RSV and RSV-associated comorbidities in adult mice. We found that, distinct from influenza virus, prior RSV infection does not induce significant IFN-γ production and susceptibility to secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in adult wild-type (WT) mice. In ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice, RSV super-infection increases airway neutrophil recruitment and inflammatory lung damage but has no significant effect on OVA-induced eosinophilia. Compared with WT controls, RSV infection of asthmatic Ifng−/− mice results in increased airway eosinophil accumulation. However, a comparable increase in eosinophilia was detected in house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthmatic Ifng−/− mice in the absence of RSV infection. Furthermore, neither WT nor Ifng−/− mice exhibit apparent eosinophil infiltration during RSV infection alone. Together, these findings indicate that, despite its critical role in limiting eosinophilic inflammation during asthma, IFN-γ is not essential for protection against RSV-induced exacerbation of asthmatic inflammation in adult mice.
A variety of signaling pathways are involved in the induction of innate cytokines and CD8+ T cells, which are major players in protection against acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Previous data have demonstrated that a TBK-1/IRF3-dependent signaling pathway promotes IFN-β production in response to Trypanosoma cruzi, but the role for STING, a main interactor of these proteins, remained to be addressed. Here, we demonstrated that STING signaling is required for production of IFN-β, IL-6, and IL-12 in response to Trypanosoma cruzi infection and that STING absence negatively impacts activation of IRF-dependent pathways in response to the parasite. We reported no significant activation of IRF-dependent pathways and cytokine expression in RAW264.7 macrophages in response to heat-killed trypomastigotes. In addition, we showed that STING is essential for T. cruzi DNA-mediated induction of IFN-β, IL-6, and IL-12 gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that STING-knockout mice have significantly higher parasitemia from days 5 to 8 of infection and higher heart parasitism at day 13 after infection. Although we observed similar heart inflammatory infiltrates at day 13 after infection, IFN-β, IL-12, CXCL9, IFN-γ, and perforin gene expression were lower in the absence of STING. We also showed an inverse correlation between parasite DNA and the expression of CXCL9, IFN-γ, and perforin genes in the hearts of infected animals at day 13 after infection. Finally, we reported that STING signaling is required for splenic IFN-β and IL-6 expression early after infection and that STING deficiency results in lower numbers of splenic parasite-specific IFN-γ and IFN-γ/perforin-producing CD8+ T cells, indicating a pivotal role for STING signaling in immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi.
BackgroundThe presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection varies from asymptomatic to severe COVID-19. Similarly, high variability in the presence, titre and duration of specific antibodies has been reported. While some host factors determining these differences, such as age and ethnicity have been identified, the underlying molecular mechanisms underpinning these differences remain poorly defined.MethodsWe analysed serum and PBMC from 17 subjects with a previous PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and 10 unexposed volunteers following the first wave of the pandemic, in the UK. Anti-NP IgG and neutralising antibodies were measured, as well as a panel of infection and inflammation related cytokines. The virus-specific T cell response was determined by IFN-γ ELISPOT and flow cytometry after overnight incubation of PBMCs with pools of selected SARS-CoV-2 specific peptides.ResultsSeven of 17 convalescent subjects had undetectable levels of anti-NP IgG, and a positive correlation was shown between anti-NP IgG levels and the titre of neutralising antibodies (IC50). In contrast, a discrepancy was noted between antibody levels and T cell IFN-γ production by ELISpot following stimulation with specific peptides. Among the analysed cytokines, β-NGF and IL-1α levels were significantly different between anti-NP positive and negative subjects, and only β-NGF significantly correlated with anti-NP positivity. Interestingly, CD4+ T cells of anti-NP negative subjects expressed lower amounts of the β-NGF-specific receptor TrkA.ConclusionsOur results suggest that the β-NGF/TrkA signalling pathway is associated with the production of anti-NP specific antibody in mild SARS-CoV-2 infection and the mechanistic regulation of this pathway in COVID-19 requires further investigation.
Due to their innovative functions, the use of nanoparticles in various industries has been expanding. However, a key concern is whether nanoparticles induce unexpected biological effects. Although many studies have focused on innate immunity, information on whether nanoparticles induce biological responses through effects on acquired immunity is sparse. Here, to assess the effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles on acquired immunity, we analyzed changes in acute toxicities after pretreatment with amorphous silica nanoparticles (50 nm in diameter; nSP50). Pretreatment with nSP50 biochemically and pathologically exacerbated nSP50-induced hepatic damage in immunocompetent mice. However, pretreatment with nSP50 did not exacerbate hepatic damage in immunodeficient mice. Consistent with this, the depletion of CD8+ cells with an anti-CD8 antibody in animals pretreated with nSP50 resulted in lower plasma levels of hepatic injury markers such as ALT and AST after an intravenous administration than treatment with an isotype-matched control antibody. Finally, stimulation of splenocytes promoted the release of IFN-γ in nSP50-pretreated mice regardless of the stimulator used. Moreover, the blockade of IFN-γ decreased plasma levels of ALT and AST levels in nSP50-pretreated mice. Collectively, these data show that nSP50-induced acquired immunity leads to exacerbation of hepatic damage through the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
AbstractTumor inflammation is prognostically significant in high-grade muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. To identify inflammation-associated immune gene expression patterns, we performed transcriptomic profiling of 40 MIBC archival tumors using the NanoString nCounter Human v.1.1 PanCancer Panel. Findings were validated using the TCGA MIBC dataset. Unsupervised and supervised clustering identified a distinctive immune-related gene expression profile for inflammation, characterized by significant upregulation of 149 genes, particularly chemokines, a subset of which also had potential prognostic utility. Some of the most enriched biological processes were lymphocyte activation and proliferation, leukocyte adhesion and migration, antigen processing and presentation and cellular response to IFN-γ. Upregulation of numerous IFN-γ-inducible chemokines, class II MHC molecules and immune checkpoint genes was detected as part of the complex immune response to MIBC. Further, B-cell markers linked to tertiary lymphoid structures were upregulated, which in turn is predictive of tumor response to immunotherapy and favorable outcome. Our findings of both an overall activated immune profıle and immunosuppressive microenvironment provide novel insights into the complex immune milieu of MIBC with inflammation and supports its clinical significance for predicting prognosis and immunotherapeutic responsiveness, which warrants further investigation. This may open novel opportunities to identify mechanisms for developing new immunotherapeutic strategies.