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2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (6) ◽  
pp. 1-15
Ruoyu He ◽  
Tomas Baležentis ◽  
Dalia Štreimikienė ◽  
Zhiyang Shen

The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) initiated by Chinese government could be regarded as a systematic framework for promoting economic cooperation and development among the countries along the Belt and Road and China. This paper attempts to analyze economic and environmental performance in 61 developing countries along Belt and Road. An additive total factor productivity growth measure allows aggregating contributions of individual countries along the BRI to construct a reasonable measure. Both desirable and undesirable outputs are considered. The growth in the total factor productivity is decomposed with respect to the economic and environmental contributions. The annual average growth rate of green productivity is 3.1% and the disparity of economic and environmental performance could be observed among countries. Some countries show robust economic growths while environmental performance slows down green growth. This indicates that developing economies should pay attention to environmental impacts and promote sustainable development by sharing emission reduction technologies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (1) ◽  
pp. 61-84
Wenqing Kang

Abstract This article is part of a larger research project that traces the history of male same-sex relations in China during the Mao era, a topic on which virtually no scholarship is currently available. The Chinese government named the Cultural Revolution (1966–76) “ten years of turmoil” in its aftermath. Stories circulate widely about men who were labeled as sodomites, humiliated and tortured in public, and sentenced to hard labor; some reportedly were beaten to death or committed suicide during this period. Using oral history and archival cases collected by the author, this article complicates this narrative about the Cultural Revolution by documenting different experiences of sexual awakening, ingenuity, and resilience of those men as well as their fear, misfortune, and tribulations. Despite all the risks of being arrested, interrogated, and disciplined by the authorities, clandestine sex between men persisted in both private and public spaces throughout this tumultuous period.


Hamugetu’s paper discusses the relationships between tradition and modernity through an examination of the Seventh lCang-skya’s activities in China and Inner Mongolia in the late Qing period. Articulating a modern ideology of the separation of church and state, he sought to protect the interests of Tibetan Buddhist society from both the Chinese government and Inner Mongolian nationalists through accommodating both forces, while simultaneously seeking to reform Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Mongolia along modernist lines. Striving to protect the interests of the Buddhist community, the struggle of the Seventh lCang-skya between the system of jasak lamas and the separation of religion and state is typical of the issues facing the Tibetan Buddhist world in the early 20th century.

2022 ◽  
pp. 0145482X2110736
Xue Hui Li ◽  
Su Qiong Xu ◽  
Luan Jiao Hu

Introduction The United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities identified the Chinese blind massage policy as “reserved employment” in its Concluding Observations in 2012. In response, this paper reviewed the policy on blind massage in China and discussed its effectiveness and social impact. Methods: Adopting a historical perspective, this paper describes the development stages of the blind massage policy in China. It reveals the social construction process of the blind massage policy. Government data were provided to help analyze the positive and negative effects of the policy according to the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Results: The blind massage policy is a national strategy involving semi-reserved employment to improve the low employment rate of people with visual impairments in China. It promoted employment of people with visual impairments at the start, but, as the system of the blind massage gradually took shape, it restricted these individuals from choosing a career freely. The blind massage policy has resulted in deep-rooted social prejudices, and it demonstrates disability-based discrimination and charity-oriented practices. Discussion: The Chinese blind massage policy is discriminatory and does not reflect the modern concept of disability rights advocated in the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Implications for practitioners: The Chinese government needs to promote institutional reforms to provide better education and employment for people with visual impairments to change the limited content of vocational training and eliminate discriminatory policies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Houyin Long ◽  
Hong Zeng ◽  
Xinyi Lin

The Chinese government has adopted many policies to save energy and electricity in the chemical industry by improving technology and reforming its electricity market. The improved electricity efficiency and the electricity reform may indirectly reduce expected energy and electricity savings by decreasing the effective electricity price and the marginal cost of electricity services. To analyze the above issues, this paper employs the Morishima Elasticity of Substitution of the electricity cost share equation which is estimated by the DOLS method. The results show that: 1) There exists a rebound effect in the Chinese chemical industry, but it is quite large because the electricity price is being controlled by the government; 2) the reform of the electricity market reduces the rebound effect to 73.85%, as electricity price begins to reflect cost information to some extent; 3) there is still a lot of space for the reform to improve, and the rebound effect could be reduced further once the electricity price is adjusted to transfer the market information more correctly. In order to succeed in saving electricity and decreasing the rebound effect in the chemical industry, the policy implications are provided from perspectives of the improved energy efficiency and electricity pricing mechanism.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Zumian Xiao ◽  
Lu Yu ◽  
Yinwei Liu ◽  
Xiaoning Bu ◽  
Zhichao Yin

How to utilize financial instrument to deal with environmental issues has been a focal topic. Taking the introduction of green credit program as a “quasi-natural experiment,” the propensity score matching and difference-in-difference approach (PSM-DID) are used to investigate the impact of the green credit policy implemented by Chinese government on firm-level industrial pollutant emissions. The estimation results indicate that the green credit policy significantly reduces corporate sulfur dioxide emissions. Heterogeneity analysis shows this impact is more pronounced for large-scale enterprises and enterprises located in the eastern region. The estimated mediation models reveal that after the implementation of the green credit policy, reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions can be attribute to the increased environmental investment and improved energy consumption intensity. Moreover, the green credit policy is also significantly effective in mitigating the discharge of other common industrial pollutants. Our findings highlight the importance of green credit policies in achieving greener industrial production and more sustainable economic development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Wen Zhou ◽  
Leshui He ◽  
Xuanhua Nie ◽  
Taoketaohu Wuri ◽  
Jinhai Piao ◽  

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout China in January 2020. To contain the virus outbreak, the Chinese government took extraordinary measures in terms of public policy, wherein accurate and timely dissemination of information plays a crucial role. Despite all of the efforts toward studying this health emergency, little is known about the effectiveness of public policies that support health communication during such a crisis to disseminate knowledge for self-protection. Particularly, we focus on the accuracy and timeliness of knowledge dissemination on COVID-19 among people in remote regions—a topic largely omitted in existing research. In February 2020, at the early-stages of the COVID-19 outbreak, a questionnaire survey was carried out. In total, 8,520 participants from seven less economically developed provinces situated in the borderlands of China with large ethnic minority groups responded. We analyzed the data through poisson regression and logistic regression analyses. We found that (1) people in remote regions of China obtained accurate information on COVID-19. Further, they were able to take appropriate measures to protect themselves. (2) Result from both descriptive analysis and multivariable regression analysis revealed that there is no large difference in the accuracy of information among groups. (3) Older, less educated, and rural respondents received information with a significant delay, whereas highly educated, younger, urban residents and those who obtained information through online media were more likely to have received the news of the outbreak sooner and to be up to date on the information. This research provides evidence that disadvantage people in remote regions obtained accurate and essential information required to act in an appropriate manner in responses to the COVID-19 outbreak. However, they obtained knowledge on COVID-19 at a slower pace than other people; thus, further improvement in the timely dissemination of information among disadvantage people in remote regions is warranted.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 801
Xin Shen ◽  
Bowei Chen ◽  
Markus Leibrecht ◽  
Huanzheng Du

The Chinese government is promoting a waste classification policy to solve the increasingly serious issue of cities being besieged by waste. Only few studies investigate whether residents’ understanding of garbage classification policy has an impact on their garbage classification behaviour and the nature of such impact. The purposes of this study are twofold: first, to explore conceptually the mechanism behind any moderating effects of perceived policy effectiveness (PPE) on waste classification and, second, to examine empirically if and how PPE influences the relationships between attitude (ATT), subjective norm (SN), perceived behaviour control (PBC), awareness of consequence (AC) and waste classification intention (WCI). The conceptual model of the study is developed by combining insights from the theory of planned behaviour, norm activation theory and value–belief–norm theory. A total of 351 questionnaires were administered in person to households in Bengbu, China. The results based on structural equation modelling with partial least squares show that PPE negatively moderates the relationship between AC and WCI. AC is more strongly related with the intention to classify waste when PPE is weaker. Likewise, when PPE is higher, people’s awareness of consequences becomes less important for WCI. The findings have significant implications in policymakers’ developing guidelines and offer a framework for implementing more effective waste classification policy.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 745
Wenhuan Wang ◽  
Jianping Wei ◽  
Dan Wu

The Chinese government has issued a new “Plastic Restriction Ban” requiring that, by the end of 2020, the food and beverage industry across the country bans the use of single-use, nondegradable plastic drinking straws. The governance of plastic drinking straws is a multi-dimensional and complex process. Therefore, based on the heterogeneity of consumers, this paper constructs a tripartite game model (the government, retailers, and consumers) for the governance of plastic drinking straws in China. Under this model, this research derives an optimal strategy in both monopoly and competitive markets, assuming the government has access to two policy tools, fines and subsidies. The research results suggest the following. (1) In monopoly markets, when (a) the fine or subsidy fee is high or (b) the fine or subsidy fee is low and the number of environment-conscious consumers is high, retailers are more inclined to provide biodegradable drinking straws. (2) Consumer heterogeneity has a certain impact on policy results; when there are enough environment-conscious consumers, policy costs can be reduced. (3) For high-quality products, the policy costs in competitive markets is lower than in monopoly markets; for low-quality products, the policy costs in competitive markets is higher than in monopoly markets. Based on the conclusions, this work suggests the government should focus on cultivating consumers’ environmental awareness and tighter control of products quality, in addition to the two policy tools, i.e., fines and subsidies, because these can reduce policy costs. Consumers should be aware of their own importance to China’s Plastic Drinking Straws Ban and adopt a refusal to accept plastic drinking straws and reduce the consumption of disposable plastics to support the policy. Retailers should also realize that proactively catering to consumer and government expectations can bring higher benefits to themselves; this can be achieved by providing high-quality biodegradable straws to support China’s Plastic Drinking Straws Ban. The model of this work could be applied to other corporate activities related to sustainability, such as plastic bags, plastic bottles, etc., and their connection to government policies.

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