Philosophical Approach
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2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (60) ◽  
pp. 29-63
Martin Rabas

The present article has two objectives. One is to elucidate the philosophical approach presented in the so-called Strahov Systematic Manuscripts of Jan Patočka in terms of consciousness and nature. The other is to compare this philosophical approach with Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s theses on nature, as elaborated in 1956–1961, and to point out some advantages and limitations of both approaches. In our opinion, Patočka’s philosophical approach consists, on the one hand, in a descriptive analysis of human experience, which he understands as a pre-reflective self-relationship pointing towards the consciousness of the world. On the other hand, on the basis of this descriptive analysis Patočka consequently explicates all non-human life, inorganic matter, and finally the whole of nature as life in its own right, the essence of which is also a certain self-relation with a tendency towards consciousness. The article then briefly presents Merleau-Ponty’s theses on nature, and finally compares them with Patočka’s overall theses on nature. The advantage of Patočka’s notion of nature as against Merleau-Ponty’s is that, in Patočka’s view, nature encompasses both the principle of unity and individuality. On the other hand, the advantage of Merleau-Ponty’s understanding of nature as against Patočka’s lies in the consistent interconnectedness of the infinite life of nature and the finite life of individual beings.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Toyin Ajibade Adisa ◽  
Chidiebere Ogbonnaya ◽  
Olatunji David Adekoya

PurposeThrough the lens of Conservation of Resources (COR) theory, this study explores how remote working inhibits employee engagement. The authors offer a fresh perspective on the most salient work- and nonwork-related risk factors that make remote working particularly challenging in the context of Covid-19.Design/methodology/approachThe authors use data from semi-structured interviews with 32 employees working from home during the Covid-19 lockdown. Based on the interpretivist philosophical approach, the authors offer new insights into how employees can optimize work- and nonwork-related experiences when working remotely.FindingsThe authors show that the sudden transition from in-person to online modes of working during the pandemic brought about work intensification, online presenteeism, employment insecurity and poor adaptation to new ways of working from home. These stress factors are capable of depleting vital social and personal resources, thereby impacting negatively on employee engagement levels.Practical implicationsEmployers, leaders and human resource teams should be more thoughtful about the risks and challenges employees face when working from home. They must ensure employees are properly equipped with the relevant resources and support to perform their jobs more effectively.Originality/valueWhile previous research has focused on the benefits of remote working, the current study explores how it might be detrimental for employee engagement during a pandemic. The study provides new evidence on the most salient risks and challenges faced by remote workers, and how the unique Covid-19 context has made them more pronounced.

Zareena Qasim ◽  
Adeela Iftikhar ◽  
Asifa Qasim

The study investigates the novel The Wandering Falcon (2011) by Jamil Ahmad in the milieu of feminist approach. It qualitatively explores the text for the representation of women: the treatment of women by men, and their position in the patriarchal society. The novel is analysed by employing De-Beauvoir’s (1949) feministic philosophical approach in The Second Sex. This research explores the way power is exercised over women in the novel and the suppression of women by men plays as an instrument of transmission of customs and traditions.  This research is to explore the novel from a feministic perspective to unveil the hidden realities in the novel regarding women to find out what sort of oppression is faced by women in the novel and to explore the general problems of women in the novel. It is found that in the context of the novel, women are treated unjustly by men. They are deprived of their rights and are taken as commodities in the patriarchal society. Women are stereotypically presented as having no identity, no freedom, and no voice of their own. Being treated as objects and things to be traded by men, women in the novel are found facing domestic violence, sexual objectification, and extra judicial killings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 209-220
Ronny Mahmuddin ◽  
Zulfiah Sam ◽  
Akhmad Hanafi Dain Yunta ◽  
Mariyani Syam

This study aimed to find out and understand how to buy and sell two prices in one sale and purchase transaction (Bai'atani fi bai'ah) according to the perspective of the Maliki Sect and the Shafi'i Sect. The study was a qualitative descriptive research (non-statistical), which focuses on the study of manuscripts and texts, using a normative and philosophical approach. The results of the study found several things. First, according to the Maliki Sect, buying and selling two prices in one trade transaction (Bai'atani fi bai'ah) is permissible provided that there is certainty of an agreement to be used to pay before parting. While the Shafi'i sect considers that buying and selling is absolutely haram, this is due to the vagueness of the contract chosen by both parties. Second, the view of the Maliki Sect is skewed stronger than the view of the Shafi'i Sect, because Imam Malik considers this trade should not be unless there is clarity of agreement agreed before separation. The determination between the two agreements makes this trade permissible according to Imam Malik. As for the opinion of Imam Shafi'i is more careful, because such a trade is very vulnerable to injustice, usury practice and other damage, so at one time this opinion can also be used.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (3) ◽  
pp. 34-47
Eduardus Suharto ◽  
Ubud Salim ◽  
Sumiati ◽  
Ainur Rofiq

Indonesia is a developing country with many local cultures trying to continue increasing electronic transactions with e-Banking. UTAUT2 is the one of acceptance and use of the technology model. This study focuses on investigating the effect of Javanese cultural philosophy (local culture in Indonesia) on banking customer behavior in accepting and using banking transactions. This paper is supported by qualitative information, although it uses a quantitative approach. The Javanese cultural philosophy “Ojo Gumunan, Ojo Kagetan” was the main information before distributing the questionnaire as primary data. This model uses UTAUT2 and data analysis using PLS-SEM with SmartPLS. The main results reinforce the theory that the Javanese cultural philosophy “Ojo Gumunan, Ojo Kagetan” is a significant dominant factor in influencing behavior intention. The results of applying the UTAUT2 model show a variance of 86.4% for the endogenous variable behavioral intention and 72.4% for the endogenous variable use behavior to e-banking, which exceeds the value of the original model. Findings revealed that the variables of Javanese philosophy and promotion conditions have a significant effect on behavioral intentions. The facilitating condition variables, habit variables, and behavioral intentions variables on behavior using e-banking proved to affect significantly. This study aims to evaluate the model of acceptance and use of e-banking with a Javanese philosophical approach. The evaluation results show that Javanese philosophy is the main and dominant factor in the model. The contribution of this study can provide insights for practitioners and researchers that increasing non-cash banking transactions (less-cash society) through e-banking can use a local-cultural philosophical approach. AcknowledgmentsThe authors appreciate cultural experts’ contributions, including Magnis Suseno, Didik Nini Thowok, Sujiwo Tejo, and members of the FGD in providing information about Javanese culture. The authors are grateful to all parties who have given their feedback and support in completing this paper.

Wardatun Nabilah ◽  
Deri Rizal ◽  
Arifki Budia Warman

<p dir="ltr"><span id="docs-internal-guid-41f11696-7fff-db33-7f42-a6fcf5441a61"><span>A Compilation of islamic law “Kompilasi Hukum Islam”, which was ratified through Presidential Instruction (or now decree) No. 1 of 1991, is a modern codification of Islamic individual and family law that becomes the standard of judges' reference in resolving cases in religious courts. One of the critical parts of KHI is inheritance, which is the main focus of this paper. The article on inheritance in KHI is interesting for further review because it has a different legal provision to fiqh or qanun. Through the study of libraries with a philosophical approach, this paper intends to analyze the provisions that become a barrier to inheritance from the perspective of Maqāṣid al-Sharia. This study shows that the obstacles to obtaining inheritance for reasons of persecution and slander, as mentioned in article 173 KHI, are some barriers to one obtaining inheritance that are not discussed as a barrier to inheritance in the classic fiqh book of severe persecution and slander. Through literature research, it is understood that the decree of persecution and slander is a barrier to inheritance in line with the Maqāṣid al-Sharia, namely to protect the soul (hifz al-nafsi), then guard the property (hifz al-māl) and further maintain self-respect (hifz al-'Ird) Thus. However, severe persecution and slander are not listed in classical Islamic jurisprudence as a barrier to inheritance. With the study of Maqāṣid al-Sharia, these two things are very appropriate to be applied in the rule of inheritance law, especially in Indonesia, so that these two acts cause very much harm to the victim (heir).</span></span></p><div><span><br /></span></div><br /> <br />“Kompilasi Hukum Islam”, yang disahkan melalui Instruksi Presiden No. 1 Tahun 1991, merupakan kodifikasi modern hukum perseorangan dan keluarga Islam yang menjadi standar rujukan para hakim dalam menyelesaikan perkara di pengadilan agama. Salah satu bagian penting KHI adalah kewarisan, yang menjadi fokus utama dalam tulisan ini. Pasal tentang waris dalam KHI menarik dikaji lebih lanjut karena memiliki ketentuan hukum yang berbeda dengan fiqh atau qanun. Melalui studi pustaka dengan pendekatan filosofis, tulisan ini bermaksud menganalisis ketentuan yang menjadi penghalang warisan dari perspektif Maqāṣid al-Syarī’ah. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa halangan mendapatkan warisan karena alasan penganiayaan dan fitnah, sebagaimana yang disebutkan dalam pasal 173 KHI terdapat beberapa penghalang seseorang mendapatkan hak waris yang tidak dibahas sebagai penghalang kewarisan dalam kitab fiqh klasik yaitu penganiayaan berat dan fitnah. Melalui penelitian kepustakaan, dipahami bahwa ketetapan penganiayaan dan memfitnah sebagai penghalang kewarisan sejalan dengan Maqāṣid al-Syarī’ah yakni yakni untuk menjaga jiwa (hifẓal-nafsi), kemudian  menjaga harta (hifẓal-māl) dan selanjutnya menjaga kehormatan diri (hifẓ al-‘Irḍ) Maka, sekalipun penganiayaan berat dan fitnah tidak tercantum dalam fiqh klasik sebagai penghalang kewarisan, namun dengan kajian Maqāṣid Syarī’ah, kedua hal ini sangat pantas diterapkan dalam aturan hukum waris, khususnya di Indonesia. Hal ini disebabkan karena dua perbuatan ini menyebabkan sangat banyak mudarat kepada korban (pewaris).

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 43-56
Sutisna Sutisna ◽  
Evan Edo Prasetya ◽  
Yono Yono

This paper tries to discover out the views of Imam al-Mawardi about the leadership of a non-muslim as expressed in his book titled Al-Ahkam As-Sulthaniyyah. This paper based on philosophical approach. The philosophical approach applied to investigate the views of Imam al-Mawardi. The primary data sources collected from the book Al-Ahkam As-Sultaniyyah, while secondary data are books to review al-Mawardi's thoughts, as well as articles, writings and journals related to the research topic. The results of the study show that the concept of leadership of a non-Muslim according to Imam al-Mawardi is to forbid a non-Muslim from taking up a position as a leader, head of state or government. Because it is against Islamic law. However, Imam al-Mawardi granted a non-Muslim to take up a position particularly as a vizier or at the level of minister or assistant.

2021 ◽  
Vol 32 (2) ◽  
pp. 301-314
Aspandi ◽  

The formulation of the theory of hajah in Islamic law has basically gained a place as a methodology in the study of Islamic law. However, this theory of hajah has not received much response from Muslim thinkers and some are still questioning its legality basis. Specifically, this research outlines the formulation of Muslim thinkers' perspectives and their legality basis through library research. With a philosophical approach to the proposal of al-fiqh, this study describes the ideas, terminology, formulation and legality of hajah as one of the methodologies in Islamic law. This research yielded findings; Hujjahan hajah as the basis for the application of Islamic law relies on the sources and general arguments of the verses that show difficulties for everyone and beyond the capacity of the conditions in general. The formulation of hajah from the perspective of Muslim thinkers has various types based on their classification. This is because hajah is not only one kind or one kind.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-30
Mochamad Ziaulhaq ◽  
Hasbi Sen

The study of hatred that emerges as human nature can provide an analytical picture of how hatred arises, develops, and turns into humanitarian incidents. With an in-depth, systematic, and genealogical study, it can come up with a panacea for this hatred. The elixir can turn hatred into compassion, violence into nonviolence, and find creative ways to turn conflict into peace; thus, creating a new, better reality. This qualitative research uses a literature study from Risale-i Nur by Bediüzzaman Said Nursi (1877-1960). In this study, Nursi's religious and psychological explanations are compared with religious theories and studies of peace and conflict that are already popular in the Western world. The data in Risale-i Nur were analysed using the Mimesis theoretical framework of the philosophical approach. With this analysis there is the prefiguration stage (Mimesis I) about the background of Said Nursi's life, the configuration stage (Mimesis II) about the story of Said Nursi's traumatic experience, and the transfiguration stage about the emergence of the capacity to handle conflict independently with others using nonviolent ideas creatively, thus creating a new reality (Mimesis III). This new reality is "nonviolent Islam," which transforms conflict nonviolently, overcoming hatred with compassion and forgiveness. This statement is based on the argument that hatred is the root of violence, and Said Nursi can escape the trap of hatred through compassion and forgiveness. This study can contribute ideas to the study of moral philosophy and can also be used as a reference for training modules and sharing experiences to reduce conflict in society or between communities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 (18) ◽  
pp. 1-19
Juan José Martínez Olguín ◽  

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