nation states
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Daishiro Nomiya

High modernity claims that the modernity project gave rise to institutional organs of modern nation states, culminating in an emergence of ultra-military states with wartime economy in the early twentieth century. It also argues that the same developmental pattern continued to dominate in the post-World War II period. This chapter examines this high-modernity thesis, employing Japan and Hiroshima as cases to be analyzed. Against the high-modernity thesis, many believe that Japan had a historical disjuncture in 1945, being ultramilitary before the end of World War II and a peaceful nation after. Examinations show that, while the modernity project controlled a large-scale historical process in Japan, it met vehement resistance, and became stranded in Hiroshima.

Alain Touraine

Modernity is an action, a work (deed) that transforms the relation between a human group and its environment. The notion of “subjectivation” is the way I define human societies’ discovery and their creative capacity. Meanwhile the nation/states’ withdrawal into themselves, the closure of the borders to the full scope of globalization, and the acceptance or refusal of migrants become the central issue of all sociopolitical conflicts, replacing the previous labor-based conflicts that have been at the core of the industrial society. Sociological analysis today addresses the fundamental issue: What is the future of democracy? The answer lies in criticism visà- vis the idea of states and institutions as agents of democracy, and the assertion of a social definition of democracy.

2022 ◽  
Ruth Wodak ◽  
Markus Rheindorf

This new book in Critical Discourse Studies uses detailed and systematic analysis of the discursive construction of Austrian identities across a period of 20 years – from 1995 to 2015 – to trace the re-emergence of nationalism in the media, popular culture and politics, and the normalization of far-right nativist ideologies and attitudes. Contradictory and intertwined tendencies towards re-nationalization and trans-nationalization have always framed debates about European identities, but during the so-called ‘refugee crisis’ of 2015, the debates became polarized. During the COVID-19 pandemic, nation states first reacted by closing borders, while symbols of banal nationalism proliferated. The data, drawn from a variety of empirical studies, suggests changes in memory politics – the way past events are remembered – are due to a range of factors, including the growth of migrant societies; the influence of financial and climate crises; changing gender politics; and a new transnational European politics of the past. The authors assess the challenges to liberal democracies and fundamental human and constitutional rights, and analyze how the pandemic contributes to a new re-nationalization across Europe and beyond.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Trine Rask Nielsen ◽  
Naja Holten Møller

In asylum decision-making, legal authorities rely on the criterion "credibility" as a measure for determining whether an individual has a legitimate asylum claim; that is, whether they have a well-founded fear of persecution upon returning to their country of origin. Nation states, international institutions, and NGOs increasingly seek to leverage data-driven technologies to support such decisions, deploying processes of data cleaning, contestation, and interpretation. We qualitatively analyzed 50 asylum cases to understand how the asylum decision-making process in Denmark leverages data to configure individuals as credible (or not). In this context, data can vary from the applicant's testimony to data acquired on the applicant from registers and alphanumerical data. Our findings suggest that legal authorities assess credibility through a largely discretionary practice, establishing certainty by ruling out divergence or contradiction between the different forms of data and documentation involved in an asylum case. As with other reclassification processes [following Bowker and Star 1999], credibility is an ambiguous prototypical concept for decision-makers to attempt certainty, especially important to consider in the design of data-driven technologies where stakeholders have differential power.

2022 ◽  
Christian Berrig ◽  
Viggo Andreasen ◽  
Bjarke Frost Nielsen

Testing strategies have varied widely between nation states during the COVID-19 pandemic, in intensity as well as methodology. Some countries have mainly performed diagnostic testing while others have opted for mass-screening for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 as well. COVID passport solutions have been introduced, in which access to several aspects of public life requires either testing, proof of vaccination or a combination thereof. This creates a coupling between personal activity levels and testing behaviour which, as we show, leverages the heterogeneous behaviours in the population and turns this heterogeneity from a disadvantage to an advantage for epidemic control.

Eva-Maria Svensson ◽  
Therese Bäckman ◽  
Torbjörn Odlöw

AbstractIn this chapter, the tension between self-determination and human dignity in the Swedish legal system of social care for older people is analysed with help of the capabilities approach. The core focus of this approach is the individual person’s capability to make decisions. Also important is a supportive societal system that enables the realisation of self-determination, specifically for individuals who are not fully capable of making arrangements for themselves. The capabilities approach emphasises the responsibility of the State and can be used to analyse the impact of legal and political obligations for nation-states, and to balance the increased focus on self-determination and the quest for increased capabilities among older people. In the context of a dismantled welfare state, a one-sided focus on individual autonomy might turn out to be a double-edged sword, leaving the individual with self-determination but no (or insufficient) available care to decide about. In this chapter, the underlying principles of practical decisions are theoretically explored and reflected upon. Of specific relevance is human dignity (in addition to enhancing individual freedom), normativity (a set of fundamental capabilities is identified) and the central role of the nation-state (as the responsible political subject for the achievement of minimum thresholds for all capabilities).

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 27-47
Yan Vaslavskiy ◽  
Irina Vaslavskaya

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has caused profound upheavals in national communities, from humanitarian disasters to unprecedented economic downturns. All the consequences of COVID-19 have made it necessary to understand the reasons for state inefficiency and its traditional functions of ensuring economic balance and financial stability in the period before COVID-19. In fact, inefficiency is a fundamental problem of modern socioeconomic systems. Only a violation of societal integrity can explain why economic isolation and social distancing managed to instantly destroy economic structures, cause a loss in confidence in governments by citizens and increase the potential for protest against the extraordinary actions of nation-states in the fight against COVID-19. At the end of 2020, there was universal agreement about a fundamentally uncertain post-COVID-19 reality. Many progressive specialists have expressed the opinion that the degree of future socioeconomic progress directly depends on the abilities of policymakers to prioritise societal integrity in solving economic problems and achieving the goal of shared prosperity in the future

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 261-292
Sirus H. Dehdari ◽  
Kai Gehring

We study how more negative historical exposure to the actions of nation-states—like war, occupation, and repression—affects the formation of regional identity. The quasi-exogenous division of the French regions Alsace and Lorraine allows us to implement a geographical regression discontinuity design at the municipal level. Using measures of stated and revealed preferences, we find that more negative experiences with nation-states are associated with a stronger regional identity in the short, medium, and long run. This is linked to preferences for more regional decision-making. Establishing regional organizations seems to be a key mechanism to maintaining and strengthening regional identity. (JEL H77, N43, N44, N93, N94, Z13)

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-24

This chapter will highlight contemporary issues plaguing the international system and the actors (nation-states) involved. The chapter begins by detailing the rising nationalism that fomented into insurrection on January 6, 2021 at the United States Capitol building. The chapter will take a deeper look into the 21st century world order and provide foresight into the chapters to come.

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