emotional processing
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 448
Julia Maruani ◽  
Pierre A. Geoffroy

Light exerts powerful biological effects on mood regulation. Whereas the source of photic information affecting mood is well established at least via intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) secreting the melanopsin photopigment, the precise circuits that mediate the impact of light on depressive behaviors are not well understood. This review proposes two distinct retina–brain pathways of light effects on mood: (i) a suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-dependent pathway with light effect on mood via the synchronization of biological rhythms, and (ii) a SCN-independent pathway with light effects on mood through modulation of the homeostatic process of sleep, alertness and emotion regulation: (1) light directly inhibits brain areas promoting sleep such as the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), and activates numerous brain areas involved in alertness such as, monoaminergic areas, thalamic regions and hypothalamic regions including orexin areas; (2) moreover, light seems to modulate mood through orexin-, serotonin- and dopamine-dependent pathways; (3) in addition, light activates brain emotional processing areas including the amygdala, the nucleus accumbens, the perihabenular nucleus, the left hippocampus and pathways such as the retina–ventral lateral geniculate nucleus and intergeniculate leaflet–lateral habenula pathway. This work synthetizes new insights into the neural basis required for light influence mood

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. e837
Joel Pinney ◽  
Fiona Carroll ◽  
Paul Newbury

Background Human senses have evolved to recognise sensory cues. Beyond our perception, they play an integral role in our emotional processing, learning, and interpretation. They are what help us to sculpt our everyday experiences and can be triggered by aesthetics to form the foundations of our interactions with each other and our surroundings. In terms of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), robots have the possibility to interact with both people and environments given their senses. They can offer the attributes of human characteristics, which in turn can make the interchange with technology a more appealing and admissible experience. However, for many reasons, people still do not seem to trust and accept robots. Trust is expressed as a person’s ability to accept the potential risks associated with participating alongside an entity such as a robot. Whilst trust is an important factor in building relationships with robots, the presence of uncertainties can add an additional dimension to the decision to trust a robot. In order to begin to understand how to build trust with robots and reverse the negative ideology, this paper examines the influences of aesthetic design techniques on the human ability to trust robots. Method This paper explores the potential that robots have unique opportunities to improve their facilities for empathy, emotion, and social awareness beyond their more cognitive functionalities. Through conducting an online questionnaire distributed globally, we explored participants ability and acceptance in trusting the Canbot U03 robot. Participants were presented with a range of visual questions which manipulated the robot’s facial screen and asked whether or not they would trust the robot. A selection of questions aimed at putting participants in situations where they were required to establish whether or not to trust a robot’s responses based solely on the visual appearance. We accomplished this by manipulating different design elements of the robots facial and chest screens, which influenced the human-robot interaction. Results We found that certain facial aesthetics seem to be more trustworthy than others, such as a cartoon face versus a human face, and that certain visual variables (i.e., blur) afforded uncertainty more than others. Consequentially, this paper reports that participant’s uncertainties of the visualisations greatly influenced their willingness to accept and trust the robot. The results of introducing certain anthropomorphic characteristics emphasised the participants embrace of the uncanny valley theory, where pushing the degree of human likeness introduced a thin line between participants accepting robots and not. By understanding what manipulation of design elements created the aesthetic effect that triggered the affective processes, this paper further enriches our knowledge of how we might design for certain emotions, feelings, and ultimately more socially acceptable and trusting robotic experiences.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Benjamin C. Gibson ◽  
Andrei Vakhtin ◽  
Vincent P. Clark ◽  
Christopher C. Abbott ◽  
Davin K. Quinn

Hemispheric differences in emotional processing have been observed for over half a century, leading to multiple theories classifying differing roles for the right and left hemisphere in emotional processing. Conventional acceptance of these theories has had lasting clinical implications for the treatment of mood disorders. The theory that the left hemisphere is broadly associated with positively valenced emotions, while the right hemisphere is broadly associated with negatively valenced emotions, drove the initial application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Subsequent rTMS research has led to improved response rates while adhering to the same initial paradigm of administering excitatory rTMS to the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and inhibitory rTMS to the right PFC. However, accumulating evidence points to greater similarities in emotional regulation between the hemispheres than previously theorized, with potential implications for how rTMS for MDD may be delivered and optimized in the near future. This review will catalog the range of measurement modalities that have been used to explore and describe hemispheric differences, and highlight evidence that updates and advances knowledge of TMS targeting and parameter selection. Future directions for research are proposed that may advance precision medicine and improve efficacy of TMS for MDD.

2022 ◽  
Daniel Maroti ◽  
Erland Axelsson ◽  
Brjánn Ljótsson ◽  
Gerhard Andersson ◽  
Mark Lumley ◽  

Abstract Objective The 25-item Emotional Processing Scale (EPS) is a measure of emotional processing. There is a scarcity of research about its factor structure, test-retest reliability, and validity in individuals with psychiatric symptoms. Method We administered the EPS-25 to a sample (N=512) of people with elevated psychiatric symptoms, using confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate three a priori models from previous research. We then evaluated discriminant and convergent validity against measures of alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20; TAS-20), depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionaire-9; PHQ-9) and anxiety symptoms (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; GAD-7). Results None of the a priori models achieved acceptable fit, and subsequent exploratory factor analysis did not lead to a convincing factor solution for the 25 items. A 5-factor model did, however, achieve acceptable fit if we retained only 15 items (EPS-15) and this solution could be replicated in a holdout sample. Convergent and discriminant validity for EPS-15 was r=-.19-.46 vs. TAS-20, r=.07-.25 vs. PHQ-9, r=.29-.57 vs. GAD-7. Test-retest reliability was ICC=.73. Conclusions This study strengthens the case for the reliability and validity of the five factor Emotional Processing Scale but suggest that only 15 items should be retained. Future studies should further examine the reliability and validity of the EPS-15.

2022 ◽  
Philippe C Habets ◽  
Konstantinos Kalafatakis ◽  
Oleh Dzyubachyk ◽  
Steven van der Werff ◽  
Arlin Keo ◽  

The characteristic endogenous circadian rhythm of plasma glucocorticoid concentrations is made up from an underlying ultradian pulsatile secretory pattern. Recent evidence has indicated that this ultradian cortisol pulsatility is crucial for normal emotional response in man. In this study, we investigate the anatomical transcriptional and cell type signature of brain regions sensitive to a loss of ultradian rhythmicity in the context of emotional processing. We combine human cell type and transcriptomic atlas data of high spatial resolution with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. We show that the loss of cortisol ultradian rhythm alters emotional processing response in cortical brain areas that are characterized by transcriptional and cellular profiles of GABAergic function. We find that two previously identified key components of rapid non-genomic GC signaling - the ANXA1 gene and retrograde endocannabinoid signaling - show top differential expression and the most significant enrichment. Our results further indicate that specific cell types, including a specific NPY-expressing GABAergic neuronal cell type, and specific G protein signaling cascades underly the cerebral effects of a loss of ultradian cortisol rhythm. Our results provide a biological mechanistic underpinning of our fMRI findings, indicating specific cell types and cascades as a target for manipulation in future experimental studies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026988112110647
James J Rucker ◽  
Lindsey Marwood ◽  
Riikka-Liisa J Ajantaival ◽  
Catherine Bird ◽  
Hans Eriksson ◽  

Background: Psilocybin, a psychoactive serotonin receptor partial agonist, has been reported to acutely reduce clinical symptoms of depressive disorders. Psilocybin’s effects on cognitive function have not been widely or systematically studied. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the safety of simultaneous administration of psilocybin to healthy participants in the largest randomised controlled trial of psilocybin to date. Primary and secondary endpoints assessed the short- and longer-term change in cognitive functioning, as assessed by a Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) Panel, and emotional processing scales. Safety was assessed via endpoints which included cognitive function, assessed by CANTAB global composite score, and treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) monitoring. Methods: In this phase 1, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy participants ( n = 89; mean age 36.1 years; 41 females, 48 males) were randomised to receive a single oral dose of 10 or 25 mg psilocybin, or placebo, administered simultaneously to up to six participants, with one-to-one psychological support – each participant having an assigned, dedicated therapist available throughout the session. Results: In total, 511 TEAEs were reported, with a median duration of 1.0 day; 67% of all TEAEs started and resolved on the day of administration. There were no serious TEAEs, and none led to study withdrawal. There were no clinically relevant between-group differences in CANTAB global composite score, CANTAB cognitive domain scores, or emotional processing scale scores. Conclusions: These results indicate that 10 mg and 25 mg doses of psilocybin were generally well tolerated when given to up to six participants simultaneously and did not have any detrimental short- or long-term effects on cognitive functioning or emotional processing. Clinical Trial Registration: EudraCT ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ ) number: 2018-000978-30.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 13-23
Alyssa E. Erikson ◽  
Kathleen A. Puntillo ◽  
Jennifer L. McAdam

Background Losing a loved one in the intensive care unit is associated with complicated grief and increased psychologic distress for families. Providing bereavement support may help families during this time. However, little is known about the bereavement experiences of families of patients in the cardiac intensive care unit. Objective To describe the bereavement experiences of families of patients in the cardiac intensive care unit. Methods In this secondary analysis, an exploratory, descriptive design was used to understand the families’ bereavement experiences. Families from 1 cardiac intensive care unit in a tertiary medical center in the western United States participated. Audiotaped telephone interviews were conducted by using a semistructured interview guide 13 to 15 months after the patient’s death. A qualitative, descriptive technique was used for data analysis. Two independent researchers coded the interview transcripts and identified themes. Results Twelve family members were interviewed. The majority were female (n = 8, 67%), spouses (n = 10, 83%), and White (n = 10, 83%); the mean age (SD) was 58.4 (16.7) years. Five main themes emerged: (1) families’ bereavement work included both practical tasks and emotional processing; (2) families’ bereavement experiences were individual; (3) these families were resilient and found their own resources and coping mechanisms; (4) the suddenness of a patient’s death influenced families’ bereavement experiences; and (5) families’ experiences in the intensive care unit affected their bereavement. Conclusions This study provided insight into the bereavement experiences of families of patients in the cardiac intensive care unit. These findings may be useful for professionals working with bereaved families and for cardiac intensive care units considering adding bereavement support.

Natale Salvatore Bonfiglio ◽  
Roberta Renati ◽  
Gabriella Bottini

Background: Different drugs damage the frontal cortices, particularly the prefrontal areas involved in both emotional and cognitive functions, with a consequence of decoding emotion deficits for people with substance abuse. The present study aims to explore the cognitive impairments in drug abusers through facial, body and disgust emotion recognition, expanding the investigation of emotions, processing, measuring accuracy and response velocity. Method: We enrolled 13 addicted to cocaine and 12 alcohol patients attending treatment services in Italy, comparing them with 33 matched controls. Facial emotion and body posture recognition tasks, a disgust rating task, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale were included in the experimental assessment. Results: We found that emotional processes are differently influenced by cocaine and alcohol, suggesting that these substances impact diverse cerebral systems. Conclusion: The contribution made by the duration of consumption on emotional processing seems far less important than for cognitive processes. Drug abusers seem to be slower on elaboration of emotions and, in particular, of disgust emotion. Considering that the participants were not impaired in cognition, our data support the hypothesis that emotional impairments emerge independently from damage to cognitive functions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 410
Vandana Veenit ◽  
Xiaoqun Zhang ◽  
Antonio Ambrosini ◽  
Vasco Sousa ◽  
Per Svenningsson

GPR37 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor, a substrate of parkin which is linked to Parkinson’s disease (PD) and affective disorders. In this study, we sought to address the effects of early life stress (ELS) by employing the paradigm of limited nesting material on emotional behaviors in adult GPR37 knockout (KO) mice. Our results showed that, while there was an adverse effect of ELS on various domains of emotional behaviors in wild type (WT) mice in a sex specific manner (anxiety in females, depression and context-dependent fear memory in males), GPR37KO mice subjected to ELS exhibited less deteriorated emotional behaviors. GPR37KO female mice under ELS conditions displayed reduced anxiety compared to WT mice. This was paralleled by lower plasma corticosterone in GPR37KO females and a lower increase in P-T286-CaMKII by ELS in the amygdala. GPR37KO male mice, under ELS conditions, showed better retention of hippocampal-dependent emotional processing in the passive avoidance behavioral task. GPR37KO male mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim task and increased P-T286-CaMKII in the ventral hippocampus under baseline conditions. Taken together, our data showed overall long-term effects of ELS—deleterious or beneficial depending on the genotype, sex of the mice and the emotional context.

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