Cognitive Reserve
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2021 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Jendé L. Zijlmans ◽  
Sander Lamballais ◽  
Meike W. Vernooij ◽  
M. Arfan Ikram ◽  
Annemarie I. Luik

Background: Cognitive reserve aims to explain individual differences in the susceptibility to the functional impact of dementia in the presence of equal amount of neuropathological damage. It is thought to be shaped by a combination of innate individual differences and lifetime exposures. Which determinants are associated with cognitive reserve remains unknown. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the associations of sociodemographic, lifestyle, physical, and psychosocial determinants with cognitive reserve, and potential sex differences. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 4,309 participants from the Rotterdam Study (mean age 63.9±10.7) between 2006–2016. Participants completed five cognitive tests and a brain MRI-scan. Cognitive reserve was defined as a latent variable that captures variance common across five cognitive tests, while adjusting for demographic and MRI-inferred neuropathological factors. The associations of potential determinants and cognitive reserve, adjusted for relevant confounders, were assessed with structural equation models. Results: Current smoking (adjusted mean difference: –0.31, 95%confidence interval –0.42; –0.19), diabetes mellitus (–0.25, –0.40; –0.10) and depressive symptoms (–0.07/SD, –0.12; –0.03) were associated with a lower cognitive reserve whereas alcohol use (0.07/SD, 0.03; 0.12) was associated with higher cognitive reserve. Only smoking was associated with cognitive reserve in both men and women. Employment, alcohol use, diabetes, history of cancer, COPD, and depressive symptoms were only associated with cognitive reserve in women. Conclusion: Our study found that current smoking, diabetes mellitus, and depressive symptoms were associated with a lower cognitive reserve, whereas more alcohol use was associated with a higher cognitive reserve, but with clear differences between men and women.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Alessandra Griffa ◽  
Nienke Legdeur ◽  
Maryam Badissi ◽  
Martijn P. van den Heuvel ◽  
Cornelis J. Stam ◽  

The oldest-old subjects represent the fastest growing segment of society and are at high risk for dementia with a prevalence of up to 40%. Lifestyle factors, such as lifelong participation in cognitive and leisure activities, may contribute to individual cognitive reserve and reduce the risk for cognitive impairments. However, the neural bases underlying cognitive functioning and cognitive reserve in this age range are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate spectral and functional connectivity features obtained from resting-state MEG recordings in a cohort of 35 cognitively normal (92.2 ± 1.8 years old, 19 women) and 11 cognitively impaired (90.9 ± 1.9 years old, 1 woman) oldest-old participants, in relation to cognitive traits and cognitive reserve. The latter was approximated with a self-reported scale on lifelong engagement in cognitively demanding activities. Cognitively impaired oldest-old participants had slower cortical rhythms in frontal, parietal and default mode network regions compared to the cognitively normal subjects. These alterations mainly concerned the theta and beta band and partially explained inter-subject variability of episodic memory scores. Moreover, a distinct spectral pattern characterized by higher relative power in the alpha band was specifically associated with higher cognitive reserve while taking into account the effect of age and education level. Finally, stronger functional connectivity in the alpha and beta band were weakly associated with better cognitive performances in the whole group of subjects, although functional connectivity effects were less prominent than the spectral ones. Our results shed new light on the neural underpinnings of cognitive functioning in the oldest-old population and indicate that cognitive performance and cognitive reserve may have distinct spectral electrophysiological substrates.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Natalia Salas ◽  
Josefina Escobar ◽  
David Huepe

The concept of cognitive reserve –CR– postulates two forms that prevent cognitive impairment: neural reserve and neural compensation. Both have been primarily linked to the protective role played by genetic factors, educational level, occupation or socioeconomic status. Though it is true that it has been related to executive functions, so far very little attention has been paid to its predictive capacity with other variables more related to social cognition and psychosocial adaptation. Considering socially vulnerable contexts with reduced cultural capital and educational levels, the neural reserve function would be the most relevant and best predictor of aspects related to social cognition and executive functions. We suggest that variables such as fluid and crystallized intelligence influence social cognition and executive functions. This study included a sample of 27 participants over 60 years old from varied contexts of social vulnerability. The procedure included data collection using various cognitive measures. Results show that elderly people with high intelligence—mainly fluid intelligence—have better executive functions, emotional recognition and theory of mind. These results focus on cognitive reserve and its importance because they show that elderly people in vulnerable contexts who strengthen these aspects protect themselves against the deterioration of cognitive skills. This study is the first preliminary research to present a relationship between cognitive reserve and social cognition factors in elderly subjects. Fluid intelligence functions as a highly related factor to protect the performance of executive functions, along with other social-cognitive factors relevant to facilitating the conditions of social adaptation.

Cristina Cañete-Massé ◽  
Maria Carbó-Carreté ◽  
María Dolores Figueroa-Jiménez ◽  
Guillermo R. Oviedo ◽  
Myriam Guerra-Balic ◽  

AbstractThe presence of missing data and small sample sizes are very common in social and health sciences. Concurrently to present a methodology to solve the small sample size and missing data, we aim to present a definition of Cognitive Reserve for people with Down Syndrome. This population has become an appealing focus to study this concept because of the high incidence of dementia. The accidental sample comprised 35 persons with DS (16–35 years). A total of 12 variables were acquired, four of them had missing data. Two types of multiple imputation were made. Confirmatory factor analysis with Bayesian estimations was performed on the final database with non-informative priors. However, to solve the sample size problem, two additional corrections were made: first, we followed the Jiang and Yuan (2017) schema, and second, we made a Jackknife correlation correction. The estimations of the confirmatory factor analysis, as well as the global fit, are adequate. As an applied perspective, the acceptable fit of our model suggests the possibility of operationalizing the latent factor Cognitive Reserve in a simple way to measure it in the Down Syndrome population.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (2) ◽  
pp. 128-138
Soo Kyun Woo

Soo Kyun Woo;Jae Myeong Kang;Nambeom Kim;Sook Young Lee;Sangsoon Kim;Da Jeong Kim;Chang-Ki Kang;Jun-Young Lee;Seong-Jin Cho

2021 ◽  
Sonia Montemurro ◽  
Roberta Daini ◽  
Chiara Tagliabue ◽  
Sabrina Guzzetti ◽  
Giulia Gualco ◽  

Abstract Normative data of neuropsychological tests typically take into account the effect of demographic variables like age and education on performance. However, a broad literature has shown that, after the school age, other cognitively stimulating experiences (e.g., occupational attainment and a variety of leisure-time activities) may increase and build up cognitive reserve (CR), which is positively associated with better performance in neuropsychological tests. With these premises, we investigated the predictive ability of education and a life-experience proxy of CR on a widely used cognitive screening, i.e., the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Results show that including the more comprehensive life-experience CR proxy is better than considering only education in predicting expected cognitive performance. Based on the results of our analyses we provide normative data and cut-offs on 440 Italian individuals aged 50-90 years, by taking into account, for the first time for the Italian population, a CR index, together with demographic variables and Education, in the calculation of regression-based norms. Accounting for life-experience CR proxies can improve the accuracy of normative data and allow a finer estimation of cognitive performance, which lead to a more tailored approach to patient assessment.

Antonio R. Villa ◽  
Elsa Guerrero ◽  
Ana M. Villa ◽  
Rosalinda Sánchez-Arenas ◽  
María Araceli Ortiz-Rodríguez ◽  

An elderly person who lives alone must often be autonomous and self-sufficient in daily living activities. We explored if living alone and marital status were associated with mild cognitive impairment and low cognitive reserve in a sample of Mexican women aged 60+ attending continuing education courses using a cross-sectional design. Objective cognitive functions were assessed using the MMSE and Blessed Dementia Scale. We administered the Cognitive Reserve Questionnaire. Independence skills were assessed with the Katz index and Lawton index. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. We recruited 269 participants (x¯ = 69.0 ± 5.8 years). Single, widowed, separated, and divorced women comprised 73% of the participants. A third lived alone and 84% had completed high school. Mild cognitive deficit was observed among 24.5–29.0%; the upper range for cognitive reserve was 61.7%. Living alone versus living with someone was associated with cognitive impairment (OR = 0.51, p = 0.04) and with low to medium cognitive reserve (OR = 0.51, p = 0.02) after adjusting for confounding variables. Living alone was an independent factor associated with a lower probability of displaying mild cognitive impairment and a higher probability of displaying high cognitive reserve. Women living alone in this study had a more robust cognitive framework and had built their own support networks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
Valentin Ourry ◽  
Natalie L. Marchant ◽  
Ann-Katrin Schild ◽  
Nina Coll-Padros ◽  
Olga M. Klimecki ◽  

Background: The Lifetime of Experiences Questionnaire (LEQ) assesses complex mental activity across the life-course and has been associated with brain and cognitive health. The different education systems and occupation classifications across countries represent a challenge for international comparisons. The objectives of this study were four-fold: to adapt and harmonise the LEQ across four European countries, assess its validity across countries, explore its association with brain and cognition and begin to investigate between-country differences in life-course mental activities.Method: The LEQ was administered to 359 cognitively unimpaired older adults (mean age and education: 71.2, 13.2 years) from IMAP and EU-funded Medit-Ageing projects. Education systems, classification of occupations and scoring guidelines were adapted to allow comparisons between France, Germany, Spain and United Kingdom. We assessed the LEQ's (i) concurrent validity with a similar instrument (cognitive activities questionnaire - CAQ) and its structural validity by testing the factors' structure across countries, (ii) we investigated its association with cognition and neuroimaging, and (iii) compared its scores between countries.Results: The LEQ showed moderate to strong positive associations with the CAQ and revealed a stable multidimensional structure across countries that was similar to the original LEQ. The LEQ was positively associated with global cognition. Between-country differences were observed in leisure activities across the life-course.Conclusions: The LEQ is a promising tool for assessing the multidimensional construct of cognitive reserve and can be used to measure socio-behavioural determinants of cognitive reserve in older adults across countries. Longitudinal studies are warranted to test further its clinical utility.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jose A. García-Moreno ◽  
Fernando Cañadas-Pérez ◽  
Juan García-García ◽  
María D. Roldan-Tapia

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