imprinted polymer
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Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 493
Fares Zouaoui ◽  
Saliha Bourouina-Bacha ◽  
Mustapha Bourouina ◽  
Nadia Zine ◽  
Abdelhamid Errachid ◽  

The massive and careless use of glyphosate (GLY) in agricultural production raises many questions regarding environmental pollution and health risks, it is then important to develop simple methods to detect it. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is an effective analytical tool for characterizing properties at the electrode/electrolyte interface. It is useful as an analytical procedure, but it can also help in the interpretation of the involved fundamental electrochemical and electronic processes. In this study, the impedance data obtained experimentally for a microsensor based on molecularly imprinted chitosan graft on 4-aminophenylacetic acid for the detection of glyphosate was analyzed using an exact mathematical model based on physical theories. The procedure for modeling experimental responses is well explained. The analysis of the observed impedance response leads to estimations of the microscopic parameters linked to the faradic and capacitive current. The interaction of glyphosate molecules with the imprinted sites of the CS-MIPs film is observed in the high frequency range. The relative variation of the charge transfer resistance is proportional to the log of the concentration of glyphosate. The capacitance decreases as the concentration of glyphosate increases, which is explained by the discharging of the charged imprinted sites when the glyphosate molecule interacts with the imprinted sites through electrostatic interactions. The phenomenon of adsorption of the ions in the CMA film is observed in the low frequency range, this phenomenon being balanced by the electrostatic interaction of glyphosate with the imprinted sites in the CS-MIPs film.

Francesca Torrini ◽  
Laura Caponi ◽  
Andrea Bertolini ◽  
Pasquale Palladino ◽  
Francesca Cipolli ◽  

AbstractAn original biomimetic enzyme-linked immunoassay (BELISA) to target the small peptide hormone gonadorelin is presented. This peptide has been recently listed among the substances banned in sports by the World Antidoping Agency (WADA) since its misuse by male athletes triggers testosterone increase. Hence, in response to this emerging issue in anti-doping controls, we proposed BELISA which involves the growth of a polynorepinephrine (PNE)–based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) directly on microwells. PNE, a polydopamine (PDA) analog, has recently displayed impressive performances when it was exploited for MIP preparation, giving even better results than PDA. Gonadorelin quantification was accomplished via a colorimetric indirect competitive bioassay involving the competition between biotinylated gonadorelin linked to the signal reporter and the unlabeled analyte. These compete for the same MIP binding sites resulting in an inverse correlation between gonadorelin concentration and the output color signal (λ = 450 nm). A detection limit of 277 pmol L−1 was achieved with very good reproducibility in standard solutions (avCV% = 4.07%) and in urine samples (avCV% = 5.24%). The selectivity of the assay resulted adequate for biological specimens and non-specific control peptides. In addition, the analytical figures of merit were successfully validated by mass spectrometry, the reference anti-doping benchtop platform for the analyte. BELISA was aimed to open real perspectives for PNE-based MIPs as alternatives to antibodies, especially when the target analyte is a poorly or non-immunogenic small molecule, such as gonadorelin. Graphical abstract

Sibel A. A OZKAN ◽  
S. Irem KAYA ◽  
Goksu Ozcelikay ◽  
Canan Armutcu

Abstract We explain the development of an ultra-sensitive molecularly imprinted polymer-based electrochemical sensor for rapid and selective determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in human serum and water samples. Electropolymerization of functional monomer aniline was performed in the presence of BPA by cyclic voltammetry (CV) to prepare a molecularly imprinted poly(aniline) based GCE sensor (MIP(ANI)/GCE). The developed MIP surface was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, CV, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The MIP(ANI)/GCE sensor showed a highly sensitive performance with a linear range of 1.0 and 8.0×10−15 M. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values were 0.193 and 0.643 fM, respectively. The applicability of the MIP(ANI)/GCE was assessed by applying it to human serum and plastic bottled water samples. The LOD and LOQ values were calculated as 0.257 and 0.856 fM for the serum sample. Imprinting factor and interference studies were also carried out using similarly structured compounds and the most common interfering agents showing the selectivity of the MIP(ANI)/GCE sensor. Finally, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based sensor was prepared to control the MIP(ANI)/GCE performance.

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