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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Tongguang Ni ◽  
Jiaqun Zhu ◽  
Jia Qu ◽  
Jing Xue

Edge/fog computing works at the local area network level or devices connected to the sensor or the gateway close to the sensor. These nodes are located in different degrees of proximity to the user, while the data processing and storage are distributed among multiple nodes. In healthcare applications in the Internet of things, when data is transmitted through insecure channels, its privacy and security are the main issues. In recent years, learning from label proportion methods, represented by inverse calibration (InvCal) method, have tried to predict the class label based on class label proportions in certain groups. For privacy protection, the class label of the sample is often sensitive and invisible. As a compromise, only the proportion of class labels in certain groups can be used in these methods. However, due to their weak labeling scheme, their classification performance is often unsatisfactory. In this article, a labeling privacy protection support vector machine using privileged information, called LPP-SVM-PI, is proposed to promote the accuracy of the classifier in infectious disease diagnosis. Based on the framework of the InvCal method, besides using the proportion information of the class label, the idea of learning using privileged information is also introduced to capture the additional information of groups. The slack variables in LPP-SVM-PI are represented as correcting function and projected into the correcting space so that the hidden information of training samples in groups is captured by relaxing the constraints of the classification model. The solution of LPP-SVM-PI can be transformed into a classic quadratic programming problem. The experimental dataset is collected from the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transcription polymerase chain reaction at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein in Brazil. In the experiment, LPP-SVM-PI is efficiently applied for COVID-19 diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012074
Hemavati ◽  
V Susheela Devi ◽  
R Aparna

Abstract Nowadays, multi-label classification can be considered as one of the important challenges for classification problem. In this case instances are assigned more than one class label. Ensemble learning is a process of supervised learning where several classifiers are trained to get a better solution for a given problem. Feature reduction can be used to improve the classification accuracy by considering the class label information with principal Component Analysis (PCA). In this paper, stacked ensemble learning method with augmented class information PCA (CA PCA) is proposed for classification of multi-label data (SEMML). In the initial step, the dimensionality reduction step is applied, then the number of classifiers have to be chosen to apply on the original training dataset, then the stacking method is applied to it. By observing the results of experiments conducted are showing our proposed method is working better as compared to the existing methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (22) ◽  
pp. 10977
Youngjae Lee ◽  
Hyeyoung Park

In developing a few-shot classification model using deep networks, the limited number of samples in each class causes difficulty in utilizing statistical characteristics of the class distributions. In this paper, we propose a method to treat this difficulty by combining a probabilistic similarity based on intra-class statistics with a metric-based few-shot classification model. Noting that the probabilistic similarity estimated from intra-class statistics and the classifier of conventional few-shot classification models have a common assumption on the class distributions, we propose to apply the probabilistic similarity to obtain loss value for episodic learning of embedding network as well as to classify unseen test data. By defining the probabilistic similarity as the probability density of difference vectors between two samples with the same class label, it is possible to obtain a more reliable estimate of the similarity especially for the case of large number of classes. Through experiments on various benchmark data, we confirm that the probabilistic similarity can improve the classification performance, especially when the number of classes is large.

2021 ◽  
Vol 72 ◽  
pp. 613-665
Vu-Linh Nguyen ◽  
Eyke Hüllermeier

In contrast to conventional (single-label) classification, the setting of multilabel classification (MLC) allows an instance to belong to several classes simultaneously. Thus, instead of selecting a single class label, predictions take the form of a subset of all labels. In this paper, we study an extension of the setting of MLC, in which the learner is allowed to partially abstain from a prediction, that is, to deliver predictions on some but not necessarily all class labels. This option is useful in cases of uncertainty, where the learner does not feel confident enough on the entire label set. Adopting a decision-theoretic perspective, we propose a formal framework of MLC with partial abstention, which builds on two main building blocks: First, the extension of underlying MLC loss functions so as to accommodate abstention in a proper way, and second the problem of optimal prediction, that is, finding the Bayes-optimal prediction minimizing this generalized loss in expectation. It is well known that different (generalized) loss functions may have different risk-minimizing predictions, and finding the Bayes predictor typically comes down to solving a computationally complexity optimization problem. In the most general case, given a prediction of the (conditional) joint distribution of possible labelings, the minimizer of the expected loss needs to be found over a number of candidates which is exponential in the number of class labels. We elaborate on properties of risk minimizers for several commonly used (generalized) MLC loss functions, show them to have a specific structure, and leverage this structure to devise efficient methods for computing Bayes predictors. Experimentally, we show MLC with partial abstention to be effective in the sense of reducing loss when being allowed to abstain.

2021 ◽  
Robert K. L. Kennedy ◽  
Justin M. Johnson ◽  
Taghi M. Khoshgoftaar
Big Data ◽  

2021 ◽  
Batool Madani ◽  
Hussam Alshraideh

This transformation of food delivery businesses to online platforms has gained high attention in recent years. This due to the availability of customizing ordering experiences, easy payment methods, fast delivery, and others. The competition between online food delivery providers has intensified to attain a wider range of customers. Hence, they should have a better understanding of their customers’ needs and predict their purchasing decisions. Machine learning has a significant impact on companies’ bottom line. They are used to construct models and strategies in industries that rely on big data and need a system to evaluate it fast and effectively. Predictive modeling is a type of machine learning that uses various regression algorithms, analytics, and statistics to estimate the probability of an occurrence. The incorporation of predictive models helpsonline food delivery providers to understand their customers. In this study, a dataset collected from 388 consumers in Bangalore, India was provided to predict their purchasing decisions. Four prediction models are considered: CART and C4.5 decision trees, random forest, and rule-based classifiers, and their accuracies in prodividing the correct class label are evaluated. The findings show that all models perform similarly, but the C4.5 outperforms them all with an accuracy of 91.67%.

2021 ◽  
Connor L. Brown ◽  
James Mullet ◽  
Fadi Hindi ◽  
James E. Stoll ◽  
Suraj Gupta ◽  

ABSTRACTCurrently available databases of bacterial mobile genetic elements (MGEs) contain both “core” and accessory MGE functional modules, the latter of which are often only transiently associated with the element. The presence of these accessory genes, which are often close homologs to primarily immobile genes, limits the usability of these databases for MGE annotation. To overcome this limitation, we analysed 10,776,212 protein sequences derived from seven MGE databases to compile a comprehensive database of 6,140 manually curated protein families that are linked to the “life cycle” (integration, excision, replication/recombination/repair, transfer, and stability/defense) of all major classes of bacterial MGEs. We overlay experimental information where available to create a tiered annotation scheme of high-quality annotations and annotations inferred exclusively through bioinformatic evidence. We additionally provide an MGE-class label for each entry (e.g., plasmid, integrative element) derived from the source database, and assign a list of keywords to each entry to delineate different MGE functional modules and to facilitate annotation. The resulting database, mobileOG-db (for mobile orthologous groups), provides a simple and readily interpretable foundation for an array of MGE-centred analyses. mobileOG-db can be accessed at, where users can browse and design, refine, and analyse custom subsets of the dynamic mobilome.

2021 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 114880
A. Santhos Kumar ◽  
Anil Kumar ◽  
Varun Bajaj ◽  
Girish Kumar Singh

Hannah Garcia Doherty ◽  
Roberto Arnaiz Burgueño ◽  
Roeland P. Trommel ◽  
Vasileios Papanastasiou ◽  
Ronny I. A. Harmanny

Abstract Identification of human individuals within a group of 39 persons using micro-Doppler (μ-D) features has been investigated. Deep convolutional neural networks with two different training procedures have been used to perform classification. Visualization of the inner network layers revealed the sections of the input image most relevant when determining the class label of the target. A convolutional block attention module is added to provide a weighted feature vector in the channel and feature dimension, highlighting the relevant μ-D feature-filled areas in the image and improving classification performance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Min-Ling Zhang ◽  
Jun-Peng Fang ◽  
Yi-Bo Wang

In multi-label classification, the task is to induce predictive models which can assign a set of relevant labels for the unseen instance. The strategy of label-specific features has been widely employed in learning from multi-label examples, where the classification model for predicting the relevancy of each class label is induced based on its tailored features rather than the original features. Existing approaches work by generating a group of tailored features for each class label independently, where label correlations are not fully considered in the label-specific features generation process. In this article, we extend existing strategy by proposing a simple yet effective approach based on BiLabel-specific features. Specifically, a group of tailored features is generated for a pair of class labels with heuristic prototype selection and embedding. Thereafter, predictions of classifiers induced by BiLabel-specific features are ensembled to determine the relevancy of each class label for unseen instance. To thoroughly evaluate the BiLabel-specific features strategy, extensive experiments are conducted over a total of 35 benchmark datasets. Comparative studies against state-of-the-art label-specific features techniques clearly validate the superiority of utilizing BiLabel-specific features to yield stronger generalization performance for multi-label classification.

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