local connectivity
Recently Published Documents





eLife ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
David Dahmen ◽  
Moritz Layer ◽  
Lukas Deutz ◽  
Paulina Anna Dąbrowska ◽  
Nicole Voges ◽  

Modern electrophysiological recordings simultaneously capture single-unit spiking activities of hundreds of neurons spread across large cortical distances. Yet, this parallel activity is often confined to relatively low-dimensional manifolds. This implies strong coordination also among neurons that are most likely not even connected. Here, we combine in vivo recordings with network models and theory to characterize the nature of mesoscopic coordination patterns in macaque motor cortex and to expose their origin: We find that heterogeneity in local connectivity supports network states with complex long-range cooperation between neurons that arises from multi-synaptic, short-range connections. Our theory explains the experimentally observed spatial organization of covariances in resting state recordings as well as the behaviorally related modulation of covariance patterns during a reach-to-grasp task. The ubiquity of heterogeneity in local cortical circuits suggests that the brain uses the described mechanism to flexibly adapt neuronal coordination to momentary demands.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Emily R. Stern ◽  
Goi Khia Eng ◽  
Alessandro S. De Nadai ◽  
Dan V. Iosifescu ◽  
Russell H. Tobe ◽  

AbstractObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly heterogeneous. Although perseverative negative thinking (PT) is a feature of OCD, little is known about its neural mechanisms or relationship to clinical heterogeneity in the disorder. In a sample of 85 OCD patients, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PT, clinical symptom subtypes, and resting-state functional connectivity measures of local and global connectivity. Results indicated that PT scores were highly variable within the OCD sample, with greater PT relating to higher severity of the “unacceptable thoughts” symptom dimension. PT was positively related to local connectivity in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), pregenual ACC, and the temporal poles—areas that are part of, or closely linked to, the default mode network (DMN)—and negatively related to local connectivity in sensorimotor cortex. While the majority of patients showed higher local connectivity strengths in sensorimotor compared to DMN regions, OCD patients with higher PT scores had less of an imbalance between sensorimotor and DMN connectivity than those with lower PT scores, with healthy controls exhibiting an intermediate pattern. Clinically, this imbalance was related to both the “unacceptable thoughts” and “symmetry/not-just-right-experiences” symptom dimensions, but in opposite directions. These effects remained significant after accounting for variance related to psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in the OCD sample, and no significant relationships were found between PT and global connectivity. These data indicate that PT is related to symptom and neural variability in OCD. Future work may wish to target this circuity when developing personalized interventions for patients with these symptoms.

eLife ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
Shivathmihai Nagappan ◽  
Kevin M Franks

Understanding how distinct neuron types in a neural circuit process and propagate information is essential for understanding what the circuit does and how it does it. The olfactory (piriform, PCx) cortex contains two main types of principal neurons, semilunar (SL) and superficial pyramidal (PYR) cells. SLs and PYRs have distinct morphologies, local connectivity, biophysical properties, and downstream projection targets. Odor processing in PCx is thought to occur in two sequential stages. First, SLs receive and integrate olfactory bulb input and then PYRs receive, transform, and transmit SL input. To test this model, we recorded from populations of optogenetically identified SLs and PYRs in awake, head-fixed mice. Notably, silencing SLs did not alter PYR odor responses, and SLs and PYRs exhibited differences in odor tuning properties and response discriminability that were consistent with their distinct embeddings within a sensory-associative cortex. Our results therefore suggest that SLs and PYRs form parallel channels for differentially processing odor information in and through PCx.

2021 ◽  
Barbara Feulner ◽  
Matthew G. Perich ◽  
Raeed H. Chowdhury ◽  
Lee E. Miller ◽  
Juan Álvaro Gallego ◽  

Animals can rapidly adapt their movements to external perturbations. This adaptation is paralleled by changes in single neuron activity in the motor cortices. Behavioural and neural recording studies suggest that when animals learn to counteract a visuomotor perturbation, these changes originate from altered inputs to the motor cortices rather than from changes in local connectivity, as neural covariance is largely preserved during adaptation. Since measuring synaptic changes in vivo remains very challenging, we used a modular recurrent network model to compare the expected neural activity changes following learning through altered inputs (Hinput) and learning through local connectivity changes (Hlocal). Learning under Hinput produced small changes in neural activity and largely preserved the neural covariance, in good agreement with neural recordings in monkeys. Surprisingly given the presumed dependence of stable neural covariance on preserved circuit connectivity, Hlocal led to only slightly larger changes in neural activity and covariance compared to Hinput. This similarity is due to Hlocal only requiring small, correlated connectivity changes to counteract the perturbation, which provided the network with significant robustness against simulated synaptic noise. Simulations of tasks that impose increasingly larger behavioural changes revealed a growing difference between Hinput and Hlocal, which could be exploited when designing future experiments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Carolina E. S. Mattsson ◽  
Frank W. Takes ◽  
Eelke M. Heemskerk ◽  
Cees Diks ◽  
Gert Buiten ◽  

Production networks are integral to economic dynamics, yet dis-aggregated network data on inter-firm trade is rarely collected and often proprietary. Here we situate company-level production networks within a wider space of networks that are different in nature, but similar in local connectivity structure. Through this lens, we study a regional and a national network of inferred trade relationships reconstructed from Dutch national economic statistics and re-interpret prior empirical findings. We find that company-level production networks have so-called functional structure, as previously identified in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Functional networks are distinctive in their over-representation of closed squares, which we quantify using an existing measure called spectral bipartivity. Shared local connectivity structure lets us ferry insights between domains. PPI networks are shaped by complementarity, rather than homophily, and we use multi-layer directed configuration models to show that this principle explains the emergence of functional structure in production networks. Companies are especially similar to their close competitors, not to their trading partners. Our findings have practical implications for the analysis of production networks and give us precise terms for the local structural features that may be key to understanding their routine function, failure, and growth.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-40

Abstract Many authors have studied the dynamics of hyperbolic transcendental entire functions; these are functions for which the postsingular set is a compact subset of the Fatou set. Equivalently, they are characterized as being expanding. Mihaljević-Brandt studied a more general class of maps for which finitely many of their postsingular points can be in their Julia set, and showed that these maps are also expanding with respect to a certain orbifold metric. In this paper we generalize these ideas further, and consider a class of maps for which the postsingular set is not even bounded. We are able to prove that these maps are also expanding with respect to a suitable orbifold metric, and use this expansion to draw conclusions on the topology and dynamics of the maps. In particular, we generalize existing results for hyperbolic functions, giving criteria for the boundedness of Fatou components and local connectivity of Julia sets. As part of this study, we develop some novel results on hyperbolic orbifold metrics. These are of independent interest, and may have future applications in holomorphic dynamics.

2021 ◽  
Brandon Weissbourd ◽  
Tsuyoshi Momose ◽  
Aditya Nair ◽  
Ann Kennedy ◽  
Bridgett Hunt ◽  

SummaryJellyfish are free-swimming, radially symmetric organisms with complex behaviors that arise from coordinated interactions between distinct, autonomously functioning body parts. This behavioral complexity evolved without a corresponding cephalization of the nervous system. The systems-level neural mechanisms through which such decentralized control is achieved remain unclear. Here, we address this question using the jellyfish, Clytia, and present it as a new neuroscience model. We describe a coordinated, asymmetric behavior in which food is passed from the umbrellar margin to the central mouth via directed margin folding. Using newly developed transgenic jellyfish lines to ablate or image specific neuronal subpopulations, we find, unexpectedly, that margin folding reflects the local activation of neural subnetworks that tile the umbrella. Modeling suggests that this structured ensemble activity emerges from sparse, local connectivity rules. These findings reveal how an organismal behavior can emerge from local interactions between functional modules in the absence of a central brain.

NeuroImage ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 225 ◽  
pp. 117513 ◽  
C. Bodin ◽  
A. Pron ◽  
M. Le Mao ◽  
J. Régis ◽  
P. Belin ◽  

2020 ◽  
Kenta M Hagihara ◽  
Ayako Wendy Ishikawa ◽  
Yumiko Yoshimura ◽  
Yoshiaki Tagawa ◽  
Kenichi Ohki

Abstract Integration of information processed separately in distributed brain regions is essential for brain functions. This integration is enabled by long-range projection neurons, and further, concerted interactions between long-range projections and local microcircuits are crucial. It is not well known, however, how this interaction is implemented in cortical circuits. Here, to decipher this logic, using callosal projection neurons (CPNs) in layer 2/3 of the mouse visual cortex as a model of long-range projections, we found that CPNs exhibited distinct response properties and fine-scale local connectivity patterns. In vivo 2-photon calcium imaging revealed that CPNs showed a higher ipsilateral (to their somata) eye preference, and that CPN pairs showed stronger signal/noise correlation than random pairs. Slice recordings showed CPNs were preferentially connected to CPNs, demonstrating the existence of projection target-dependent fine-scale subnetworks. Collectively, our results suggest that long-range projection target predicts response properties and local connectivity of cortical projection neurons.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document