obsessive compulsive disorder
Recently Published Documents


TOTAL DOCUMENTS

10763
(FIVE YEARS 3292)

H-INDEX

178
(FIVE YEARS 30)

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 5-8
Author(s):  
Mohan Belbase ◽  
Jyoti Adhikari

Introduction: Obsessive compulsive disorder is a common, chronic and disabling disorder marked by obsessions and/or compulsions. This study tries to find the demographic profiles, severity and response of antiobsessive drugs in young and adult patients with obsessive compulsive disorder. Aims: To study the socio-demographic profile, severity and treatment response to commonly used antiobsessive medications in male and female, and young and adults. Methods: This is a hospital based experimental study done in patients attending to psychiatry out-patient department over one year from February 2020 to January 2021.  Diagnosis of obsessive compulsive disorder was made based on International Classification of Disease- 10 criteria for research. Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale check list (adult and children) was applied in those patients and recorded accordingly on baseline (week 0) and patients were treated with specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants in therapeutic doses for 6 weeks. On follow up at week 6, they were again reassessed and the scores were recorded and analyzed. Results: Among the total study subject (N-52), 26(50 %) were male and 26(50 %) were females. Patients in age bracket 20-29 is the most common age group representing 18(34.6 %). Mean age of patients is 30.36±11.93 years (28.65±9.80 in male and 32.04±13.73 in female). Severe form of obsessive compulsive disorder was the most common type that represent 33(63.5%) followed by moderate 16(30.8%) and extreme 3(5.7%). There is a difference of treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female with statistical significance (p= 0.039). Conclusion: This study shows that obsessive compulsive disorder is most commonly found in 20-29 age group and the severe type is the most common. There is a significant difference in treatment response of antiobsessive therapy in male and female.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Norbert Kathmann ◽  
Tanja Jacobi ◽  
Björn Elsner ◽  
Benedikt Reuter

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has proven its efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). <b><i>Objective:</i></b> To test generalizability to routine care settings, we conducted an effectiveness study to provide naturalistic outcome data and their predictors. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> Pre-post changes in symptoms and impairment as well as response rates were determined in a naturalistic OCD sample (intention-to-treat, ITT, <i>n</i> = 393). Patients received individual CBT for OCD adopting an exposure-based, non-manualized treatment format. Linear and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify associations of sociodemographic and clinical variables with symptom change. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Effect size in ITT patients amounted to <i>d</i> = 1.47 in primary outcome (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, Y-BOCS). Remission rates were 46.3% (ITT), 52.0% (completers), and 18.2% (non-completers). The rates of treatment response without remission, no change, and deterioration in the ITT sample were 13.2, 38, and 3%, respectively. Initial symptom severity, comorbid personality disorder, and unemployment were associated with a poorer outcome, and previous medication with a better outcome. Comorbid depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other clinical or sociodemographic variables showed no effects on symptom change. <b><i>Conclusions:</i></b> Outcomes in this large observational trial in a naturalistic setting correspond to available RCT findings suggesting that CBT for OCD should be strongly recommended for dissemination in routine care. Targets for further research include early prediction of non-response and development of alternative treatment strategies for patients who respond insufficiently.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marietta Tzirini ◽  
Yiftach Roth ◽  
Tal Harmelech ◽  
Samuel Zibman ◽  
Gaby S Pell ◽  
...  

The FDA cleared deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (Deep TMS) with the H7 coil for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) treatment, following a double-blinded placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Two years later the FDA cleared TMS with the D-B80 coil on the basis of substantial equivalence. In order to investigate the induced electric field characteristics of the two coils, these were placed at the treatment position for OCD over the prefrontal cortex of a head phantom, and the field distribution was measured. Additionally, numerical simulations were performed in eight Population Head Model repository models with two sets of conductivity values and three Virtual Population anatomical head models and their homogeneous versions. The H7 was found to induce significantly higher maximal electric fields (p<0.0001, t=11.08) and to stimulate two to five times larger volumes in the brain (p<0.0001, t=6.71). The rate of decay of electric field with distance is significantly slower for the H7 coil (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon matched-pairs test). The field at the scalp is 306% of the field at a 3 cm depth with the D-B80, and 155% with the H7 coil. The H7 induces significantly higher intensities in broader volumes within the brain and in specific brain regions known to be implicated in OCD (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA)) compared to the D-B80. Significant field ≥ 80 V/m is induced by the H7 (D-B80) in 15% (1%) of the dACC, 78% (29%) of the pre-SMA, 50% (20%) of the dlPFC, 30% (12%) of the OFC and 15% (1%) of the IFG. Considering the substantial differences between the two coils, the clinical efficacy in OCD should be tested and verified separately for each coil.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ala Ghobadian ◽  
Saba Mokhtari ◽  
Behnam Shariati ◽  
Leila Kamalzadeh ◽  
Mohsen Shati ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Medications currently recommended for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) usually relieve the severity of symptoms by as much as 20–30%, and satisfactory treatment is obtained in 40–60% of patients with OCD. Nevertheless, the remaining symptoms continue to impair the patients’ function. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate possible strategies to improve the mitigation of symptoms.In this study, the main objective was to examine and investigate the effectiveness of granisetron, which is a serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor type 3 (5-HT3) antagonist, as an adjunct therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, for the purpose of ameliorating OCD symptoms. Methods: fifty-eight patients diagnosed with OCD, based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria, who had a Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) score of more than 21 were recruited in a double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of 10 weeks to receive either granisetron (1 mg twice daily) and sertraline (100 mg daily initially followed by 200 mg daily after week 4) or placebo and sertraline. The primary outcome was OCD symptoms measured by the Y-BOCS.Results: Y-BOCS total score significantly dropped in both groups (28.9 to 17.7 for granisetron and 27.5 to 19.3 for placebo group with a slightly greater drop for granisetron group), while the granisetron group experienced a significantly greater reduction in obsession scores (Greenhouse-Geisser F(2.32,97.57)=4.52,p-value=0.01). Moreover, in comparison with the placebo group, the proportion of the patients showing complete response was considerably higher among the granisetron group (P-value <0.01). No major adverse effects were observed in any of the groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that granisetron augmentation of sertraline may increase the rate of response in patients with moderate to severe non-refractory OCD. Further studies are suggested in this regard.Trial registration: The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials on 27/03/2019 (www.irct.ir; IRCT ID: IRCT20170123032145N3).


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Emily R. Stern ◽  
Goi Khia Eng ◽  
Alessandro S. De Nadai ◽  
Dan V. Iosifescu ◽  
Russell H. Tobe ◽  
...  

AbstractObsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is highly heterogeneous. Although perseverative negative thinking (PT) is a feature of OCD, little is known about its neural mechanisms or relationship to clinical heterogeneity in the disorder. In a sample of 85 OCD patients, we investigated the relationships between self-reported PT, clinical symptom subtypes, and resting-state functional connectivity measures of local and global connectivity. Results indicated that PT scores were highly variable within the OCD sample, with greater PT relating to higher severity of the “unacceptable thoughts” symptom dimension. PT was positively related to local connectivity in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), pregenual ACC, and the temporal poles—areas that are part of, or closely linked to, the default mode network (DMN)—and negatively related to local connectivity in sensorimotor cortex. While the majority of patients showed higher local connectivity strengths in sensorimotor compared to DMN regions, OCD patients with higher PT scores had less of an imbalance between sensorimotor and DMN connectivity than those with lower PT scores, with healthy controls exhibiting an intermediate pattern. Clinically, this imbalance was related to both the “unacceptable thoughts” and “symmetry/not-just-right-experiences” symptom dimensions, but in opposite directions. These effects remained significant after accounting for variance related to psychiatric comorbidity and medication use in the OCD sample, and no significant relationships were found between PT and global connectivity. These data indicate that PT is related to symptom and neural variability in OCD. Future work may wish to target this circuity when developing personalized interventions for patients with these symptoms.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sanaz Askari ◽  
Saba Mokhtari ◽  
Seyed Vahid Shariat ◽  
Behnam Shariati ◽  
Masoomeh Yarahmadi ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Medications currently recommended for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) usually decrease the severity of the symptoms by 20–30%; however, 40–60% of OCD patients do not achieve a satisfactory response. Our main objective was to investigate the effectiveness of memantine, a non-competitive N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, as an adjunct therapy to sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), to improve severity of symptoms and executive function among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Methods Seventy patients with OCD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) criteria, and a Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) score of more than 21 were recruited to the study. They received sertraline (100 mg daily initially followed by 200 mg daily after week 4) and either memantine (10 mg twice daily) or placebo in a placebo controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group, clinical trial of 12 weeks. The primary outcome was OCD symptoms measured by the Y-BOCS. Moreover, executive function of participants was measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results The total score, and obsession and compulsion subscales of Y-BOCS significantly dropped in both groups with no significant difference between the two groups. However, memantine group showed a greater response in the number of completed categories subscale of the WCST (p value<0.001). We did not observe any major adverse effects in any of the groups. Conclusion Memantine has an acceptable safety and tolerability in patients with OCD and might have a positive effect on their executive function. Nevertheless, the current results don`t support the efficacy of memantine as an adjunctive agent to sertraline for symptoms in patients with OCD. Trial registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials on 04/10/2019 (www.irct.ir; IRCT ID: IRCT20170123032145N4).


Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document